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Differential effects of oncogenic K-Ras and N-Ras on proliferation, differentiation and tumor progression in the colon.

Haigis KM, Kendall KR, Wang Y, Cheung A, Haigis MC, Glickman JN, Niwa-Kawakita M, Sweet-Cordero A, Sebolt-Leopold J, Shannon KM, Settleman J, Giovannini M, Jacks T.

Nat Genet. 2008 May;40(5):600-8. doi: 10.1038/ng.115. Epub 2008 Mar 30.


Loss of Apc allows phenotypic manifestation of the transforming properties of an endogenous K-ras oncogene in vivo.

Sansom OJ, Meniel V, Wilkins JA, Cole AM, Oien KA, Marsh V, Jamieson TJ, Guerra C, Ashton GH, Barbacid M, Clarke AR.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 19;103(38):14122-7. Epub 2006 Sep 7.


Oncogenic K-ras promotes early carcinogenesis in the mouse proximal colon.

Calcagno SR, Li S, Colon M, Kreinest PA, Thompson EA, Fields AP, Murray NR.

Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 1;122(11):2462-70. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23383.


Mouse tissues that undergo neoplastic progression after K-Ras activation are distinguished by nuclear translocation of phospho-Erk1/2 and robust tumor suppressor responses.

Parikh N, Shuck RL, Nguyen TA, Herron A, Donehower LA.

Mol Cancer Res. 2012 Jun;10(6):845-55. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-12-0089. Epub 2012 Apr 24.


Combination therapy targeting Raf-1 and MEK causes apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells.

Subramanian RR, Yamakawa A.

Int J Oncol. 2012 Nov;41(5):1855-62. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2012.1602. Epub 2012 Aug 22.


K-Ras, intestinal homeostasis and colon cancer.

Goel S, Huang J, Klampfer L.

Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2015;10(1):73-81. Review.


KRAS(G12D)- and BRAF(V600E)-induced transformation of murine pancreatic epithelial cells requires MEK/ERK-stimulated IGF1R signaling.

Appleman VA, Ahronian LG, Cai J, Klimstra DS, Lewis BC.

Mol Cancer Res. 2012 Sep;10(9):1228-39. Epub 2012 Aug 7.


PI3K pathway activation mediates resistance to MEK inhibitors in KRAS mutant cancers.

Wee S, Jagani Z, Xiang KX, Loo A, Dorsch M, Yao YM, Sellers WR, Lengauer C, Stegmeier F.

Cancer Res. 2009 May 15;69(10):4286-93. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4765. Epub 2009 Apr 28.


ERK inhibition overcomes acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors.

Hatzivassiliou G, Liu B, O'Brien C, Spoerke JM, Hoeflich KP, Haverty PM, Soriano R, Forrest WF, Heldens S, Chen H, Toy K, Ha C, Zhou W, Song K, Friedman LS, Amler LC, Hampton GM, Moffat J, Belvin M, Lackner MR.

Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 May;11(5):1143-54. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-1010. Epub 2012 Mar 8.


Inhibition of MEK and PI3K/mTOR suppresses tumor growth but does not cause tumor regression in patient-derived xenografts of RAS-mutant colorectal carcinomas.

Migliardi G, Sassi F, Torti D, Galimi F, Zanella ER, Buscarino M, Ribero D, Muratore A, Massucco P, Pisacane A, Risio M, Capussotti L, Marsoni S, Di Nicolantonio F, Bardelli A, Comoglio PM, Trusolino L, Bertotti A.

Clin Cancer Res. 2012 May 1;18(9):2515-25. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-2683. Epub 2012 Mar 5.


Mutant N-RAS protects colorectal cancer cells from stress-induced apoptosis and contributes to cancer development and progression.

Wang Y, Velho S, Vakiani E, Peng S, Bass AJ, Chu GC, Gierut J, Bugni JM, Der CJ, Philips M, Solit DB, Haigis KM.

Cancer Discov. 2013 Mar;3(3):294-307. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0198. Epub 2012 Dec 28.


Transformation by oncogenic RAS sensitizes human colon cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating death receptor 4 and death receptor 5 through a MEK-dependent pathway.

Drosopoulos KG, Roberts ML, Cermak L, Sasazuki T, Shirasawa S, Andera L, Pintzas A.

J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 17;280(24):22856-67. Epub 2005 Mar 8.


TGF-beta receptor inactivation and mutant Kras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a beta-catenin-independent pathway.

Trobridge P, Knoblaugh S, Washington MK, Munoz NM, Tsuchiya KD, Rojas A, Song X, Ulrich CM, Sasazuki T, Shirasawa S, Grady WM.

Gastroenterology. 2009 May;136(5):1680-8.e7. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.01.066. Epub 2009 Feb 4.


Context-dependent roles of mutant B-Raf signaling in melanoma and colorectal carcinoma cell growth.

Hao H, Muniz-Medina VM, Mehta H, Thomas NE, Khazak V, Der CJ, Shields JM.

Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Aug;6(8):2220-9.


Mutant KRAS promotes hyperplasia and alters differentiation in the colon epithelium but does not expand the presumptive stem cell pool.

Feng Y, Bommer GT, Zhao J, Green M, Sands E, Zhai Y, Brown K, Burberry A, Cho KR, Fearon ER.

Gastroenterology. 2011 Sep;141(3):1003-1013.e1-10. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.05.007. Epub 2011 May 18.


KRAS and HRAS mutations confer resistance to MET targeting in preclinical models of MET-expressing tumor cells.

Leiser D, Medová M, Mikami K, Nisa L, Stroka D, Blaukat A, Bladt F, Aebersold DM, Zimmer Y.

Mol Oncol. 2015 Aug;9(7):1434-46. doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2015.04.001. Epub 2015 Apr 14.


Oncogenic Ras, but not (V600E)B-RAF, protects from cholesterol depletion-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/AKT pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

Calleros L, Sánchez-Hernández I, Baquero P, Toro MJ, Chiloeches A.

Carcinogenesis. 2009 Oct;30(10):1670-7. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgp188. Epub 2009 Aug 20.


Combined targeting of BRAF and CRAF or BRAF and PI3K effector pathways is required for efficacy in NRAS mutant tumors.

Jaiswal BS, Janakiraman V, Kljavin NM, Eastham-Anderson J, Cupp JE, Liang Y, Davis DP, Hoeflich KP, Seshagiri S.

PLoS One. 2009 May 27;4(5):e5717. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005717.


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