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A naturally occurring deletion in its NS gene contributes to the attenuation of an H5N1 swine influenza virus in chickens.

Zhu Q, Yang H, Chen W, Cao W, Zhong G, Jiao P, Deng G, Yu K, Yang C, Bu Z, Kawaoka Y, Chen H.

J Virol. 2008 Jan;82(1):220-8. Epub 2007 Oct 17.


The NS1 gene contributes to the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

Li Z, Jiang Y, Jiao P, Wang A, Zhao F, Tian G, Wang X, Yu K, Bu Z, Chen H.

J Virol. 2006 Nov;80(22):11115-23. Epub 2006 Sep 13.


Virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus enhanced by a 15-nucleotide deletion in the viral nonstructural gene.

Long JX, Peng DX, Liu YL, Wu YT, Liu XF.

Virus Genes. 2008 Jun;36(3):471-8. doi: 10.1007/s11262-007-0187-8. Epub 2008 Mar 4.


[The deletion of nucleotides of NS gene from 263 to 277 of H5N1 increases viral virulence in chicken].

Long JX, Xue F, Peng Y, Gu M, Liu XF.

Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006 Apr;46(2):301-5. Chinese.


Effect on virulence and pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza A virus through truncations of NS1 eIF4GI binding domain.

Zhou H, Zhu J, Tu J, Zou W, Hu Y, Yu Z, Yin W, Li Y, Zhang A, Wu Y, Yu Z, Chen H, Jin M.

J Infect Dis. 2010 Nov 1;202(9):1338-46. doi: 10.1086/656536.


Virulence determinants of avian H5N1 influenza A virus in mammalian and avian hosts: role of the C-terminal ESEV motif in the viral NS1 protein.

Zielecki F, Semmler I, Kalthoff D, Voss D, Mauel S, Gruber AD, Beer M, Wolff T.

J Virol. 2010 Oct;84(20):10708-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00610-10. Epub 2010 Aug 4.


Amelioration of influenza virus pathogenesis in chickens attributed to the enhanced interferon-inducing capacity of a virus with a truncated NS1 gene.

Cauthen AN, Swayne DE, Sekellick MJ, Marcus PI, Suarez DL.

J Virol. 2007 Feb;81(4):1838-47. Epub 2006 Nov 22.


Live attenuated influenza viruses containing NS1 truncations as vaccine candidates against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza.

Steel J, Lowen AC, Pena L, Angel M, Solórzano A, Albrecht R, Perez DR, García-Sastre A, Palese P.

J Virol. 2009 Feb;83(4):1742-53. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01920-08. Epub 2008 Dec 10.


Shortening the unstructured, interdomain region of the non-structural protein NS1 of an avian H1N1 influenza virus increases its replication and pathogenicity in chickens.

Trapp S, Soubieux D, Marty H, Esnault E, Hoffmann TW, Chandenier M, Lion A, Kut E, Quéré P, Larcher T, Ledevin M, Munier S, Naffakh N, Marc D.

J Gen Virol. 2014 Jun;95(Pt 6):1233-43. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.063776-0. Epub 2014 Apr 2.


A single-amino-acid substitution in the NS1 protein changes the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in mice.

Jiao P, Tian G, Li Y, Deng G, Jiang Y, Liu C, Liu W, Bu Z, Kawaoka Y, Chen H.

J Virol. 2008 Feb;82(3):1146-54. Epub 2007 Nov 21. Erratum in: J Virol. 2008 Apr;82(8):4190.


Pathogenesis of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza virus NS gene reassortants in mice: the role of cytokines and B- and T-cell responses.

Lipatov AS, Andreansky S, Webby RJ, Hulse DJ, Rehg JE, Krauss S, Perez DR, Doherty PC, Webster RG, Sangster MY.

J Gen Virol. 2005 Apr;86(Pt 4):1121-30.


Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not inhibit interferon synthesis in infected chickens but can override the interferon-induced antiviral state.

Penski N, Härtle S, Rubbenstroth D, Krohmann C, Ruggli N, Schusser B, Pfann M, Reuter A, Gohrbandt S, Hundt J, Veits J, Breithaupt A, Kochs G, Stech J, Summerfield A, Vahlenkamp T, Kaspers B, Staeheli P.

J Virol. 2011 Aug;85(15):7730-41. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00063-11. Epub 2011 May 25.


Influenza virus subpopulations: exchange of lethal H5N1 virus NS for H1N1 virus NS triggers de novo generation of defective-interfering particles and enhances interferon-inducing particle efficiency.

Ngunjiri JM, Buchek GM, Mohni KN, Sekellick MJ, Marcus PI.

J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2013 Mar;33(3):99-107. doi: 10.1089/jir.2012.0070. Epub 2012 Dec 10.


The HA and NS genes of human H5N1 influenza A virus contribute to high virulence in ferrets.

Imai H, Shinya K, Takano R, Kiso M, Muramoto Y, Sakabe S, Murakami S, Ito M, Yamada S, Le MT, Nidom CA, Sakai-Tagawa Y, Takahashi K, Omori Y, Noda T, Shimojima M, Kakugawa S, Goto H, Iwatsuki-Horimoto K, Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y.

PLoS Pathog. 2010 Sep 16;6(9):e1001106. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001106.


Isolation of a genotypically unique H5N1 influenza virus from duck meat imported into Japan from China.

Mase M, Eto M, Tanimura N, Imai K, Tsukamoto K, Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y, Yamaguchi S.

Virology. 2005 Aug 15;339(1):101-9.


Influenza A/Hong Kong/156/1997(H5N1) virus NS1 gene mutations F103L and M106I both increase IFN antagonism, virulence and cytoplasmic localization but differ in binding to RIG-I and CPSF30.

Dankar SK, Miranda E, Forbes NE, Pelchat M, Tavassoli A, Selman M, Ping J, Jia J, Brown EG.

Virol J. 2013 Jul 25;10:243. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-243.


The NS segment of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is sufficient to alter replication efficiency, cell tropism, and host range of an H7N1 HPAIV.

Ma W, Brenner D, Wang Z, Dauber B, Ehrhardt C, Högner K, Herold S, Ludwig S, Wolff T, Yu K, Richt JA, Planz O, Pleschka S.

J Virol. 2010 Feb;84(4):2122-33. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01668-09. Epub 2009 Dec 9.


Synergism of co-mutation of two amino acid residues in NS1 protein increases the pathogenicity of influenza virus in mice.

Pu J, Wang J, Zhang Y, Fu G, Bi Y, Sun Y, Liu J.

Virus Res. 2010 Aug;151(2):200-4. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2010.05.007. Epub 2010 May 28.


Mutations in the NS1 protein of swine influenza virus impair anti-interferon activity and confer attenuation in pigs.

Solórzano A, Webby RJ, Lager KM, Janke BH, García-Sastre A, Richt JA.

J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7535-43.


Non structural protein of avian influenza A (H11N1) virus is a weaker suppressor of immune responses but capable of inducing apoptosis in host cells.

Mukherjee S, Majumdar S, Vipat VC, Mishra AC, Chakrabarti AK.

Virol J. 2012 Aug 6;9:149. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-9-149.

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