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Lethal and edema toxins of anthrax induce distinct hemodynamic dysfunction.

Watson LE, Mock J, Lal H, Lu G, Bourdeau RW, Tang WJ, Leppla SH, Dostal DE, Frankel AE.

Front Biosci. 2007 May 1;12:4670-5.


Anthrax toxins induce shock in rats by depressed cardiac ventricular function.

Watson LE, Kuo SR, Katki K, Dang T, Park SK, Dostal DE, Tang WJ, Leppla SH, Frankel AE.

PLoS One. 2007 May 23;2(5):e466.


Bacillus anthracis edema and lethal toxin have different hemodynamic effects but function together to worsen shock and outcome in a rat model.

Cui X, Li Y, Li X, Laird MW, Subramanian M, Moayeri M, Leppla SH, Fitz Y, Su J, Sherer K, Eichacker PQ.

J Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15;195(4):572-80. Epub 2007 Jan 3.


Proteomic analyses of murine macrophages treated with Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin.

Sapra R, Gaucher SP, Lachmann JS, Buffleben GM, Chirica GS, Comer JE, Peterson JW, Chopra AK, Singh AK.

Microb Pathog. 2006 Oct-Nov;41(4-5):157-67. Epub 2006 Sep 1.


Hemodynamic effects of anthrax toxins in the rabbit model and the cardiac pathology induced by lethal toxin.

Lawrence WS, Marshall JR, Zavala DL, Weaver LE, Baze WB, Moen ST, Whorton EB, Gourley RL, Peterson JW.

Toxins (Basel). 2011 Jun;3(6):721-36. doi: 10.3390/toxins3060721. Epub 2011 Jun 23.


Bacillus anthracis edema but not lethal toxin challenge in rats is associated with depressed myocardial function in hearts isolated and tested in a Langendorff system.

Li Y, Abu-Asab M, Su J, Qiu P, Feng J, Ohanjanian L, Kumar HS, Fitz Y, Eichacker PQ, Cui X.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Jun 15;308(12):H1592-602. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00851.2014. Epub 2015 Apr 10.


Anthrax edema toxin has cAMP-mediated stimulatory effects and high-dose lethal toxin has depressant effects in an isolated perfused rat heart model.

Hicks CW, Li Y, Okugawa S, Solomon SB, Moayeri M, Leppla SH, Mohanty A, Subramanian GM, Mignone TS, Fitz Y, Cui X, Eichacker PQ.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Mar;300(3):H1108-18. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.01128.2010. Epub 2011 Jan 7.


Late treatment with a protective antigen-directed monoclonal antibody improves hemodynamic function and survival in a lethal toxin-infused rat model of anthrax sepsis.

Cui X, Li Y, Moayeri M, Choi GH, Subramanian GM, Li X, Haley M, Fitz Y, Feng J, Banks SM, Leppla SH, Eichacker PQ.

J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb 1;191(3):422-34. Epub 2004 Dec 22.


Effects of anthrax lethal toxin on human primary keratinocytes.

Ko├žer SS, Matic M, Ingrassia M, Walker SG, Roemer E, Licul G, Simon SR.

J Appl Microbiol. 2008 Dec;105(6):1756-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03806.x.


Anthrax toxin-induced shock in rats is associated with pulmonary edema and hemorrhage.

Kuo SR, Willingham MC, Bour SH, Andreas EA, Park SK, Jackson C, Duesbery NS, Leppla SH, Tang WJ, Frankel AE.

Microb Pathog. 2008 Jun;44(6):467-72. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2007.12.001. Epub 2007 Dec 23.


Effect of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Popov SG, Villasmil R, Bernardi J, Grene E, Cardwell J, Popova T, Wu A, Alibek D, Bailey C, Alibek K.

FEBS Lett. 2002 Sep 11;527(1-3):211-5.


Murine macrophage transcriptional and functional responses to Bacillus anthracis edema toxin.

Comer JE, Galindo CL, Zhang F, Wenglikowski AM, Bush KL, Garner HR, Peterson JW, Chopra AK.

Microb Pathog. 2006 Aug-Sep;41(2-3):96-110. Epub 2006 Jul 18.


Sensitizing anthrax lethal toxin-resistant macrophages to lethal toxin-induced killing by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

Kim SO, Jing Q, Hoebe K, Beutler B, Duesbery NS, Han J.

J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 28;278(9):7413-21. Epub 2002 Dec 17.


Anthrax lethal toxin inhibits growth of and vascular endothelial growth factor release from endothelial cells expressing the human herpes virus 8 viral G protein coupled receptor.

Depeille P, Young JJ, Boguslawski EA, Berghuis BD, Kort EJ, Resau JH, Frankel AE, Duesbery NS.

Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Oct 1;13(19):5926-34.


Mitochondrial proteins Bnip3 and Bnip3L are involved in anthrax lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death.

Ha SD, Ng D, Lamothe J, Valvano MA, Han J, Kim SO.

J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 7;282(36):26275-83. Epub 2007 Jul 10.


Toll-like receptor 4 knockout protects against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of autophagy.

Kandadi MR, Frankel AE, Ren J.

Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Oct;167(3):612-26. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02040.x.


Novel repression of the glucocorticoid receptor by anthrax lethal toxin.

Webster JI, Moayeri M, Sternberg EM.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1024:9-23. Review.


Anthrax lethal and edema toxins produce different patterns of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction and synergistically decrease survival in canines.

Sweeney DA, Cui X, Solomon SB, Vitberg DA, Migone TS, Scher D, Danner RL, Natanson C, Subramanian GM, Eichacker PQ.

J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;202(12):1885-96. doi: 10.1086/657408. Epub 2010 Nov 10.


Anthrax toxin induces hemolysis: an indirect effect through polymorphonuclear cells.

Wu AG, Alibek D, Li YL, Bradburne C, Bailey CL, Alibek K.

J Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 15;188(8):1138-41. Epub 2003 Sep 30.


Inhibition of MAPK kinase signaling pathways suppressed renal cell carcinoma growth and angiogenesis in vivo.

Huang D, Ding Y, Luo WM, Bender S, Qian CN, Kort E, Zhang ZF, VandenBeldt K, Duesbery NS, Resau JH, Teh BT.

Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 1;68(1):81-8. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5311.

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