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Penta-acylated lipopolisaccharide binds to murine MD-2 but does not induce the oligomerization of TLR4 required for signal transduction.

Tsuneyoshi N, Kohara J, Bahrun U, Saitoh S, Akashi S, Gauchat JF, Kimoto M, Fukudome K.

Cell Immunol. 2006 Nov;244(1):57-64. Epub 2007 Apr 8.


Recombinant soluble forms of extracellular TLR4 domain and MD-2 inhibit lipopolysaccharide binding on cell surface and dampen lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice.

Mitsuzawa H, Nishitani C, Hyakushima N, Shimizu T, Sano H, Matsushima N, Fukase K, Kuroki Y.

J Immunol. 2006 Dec 1;177(11):8133-9.


Surfactant protein A directly interacts with TLR4 and MD-2 and regulates inflammatory cellular response. Importance of supratrimeric oligomerization.

Yamada C, Sano H, Shimizu T, Mitsuzawa H, Nishitani C, Himi T, Kuroki Y.

J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 4;281(31):21771-80. Epub 2006 Jun 5.


Stable transduction of bovine TLR4 and bovine MD-2 into LPS-nonresponsive cells and soluble CD14 promote the ability to respond to LPS.

Sauter KS, Brcic M, Franchini M, Jungi TW.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007 Jul 15;118(1-2):92-104. Epub 2007 May 3.


Pharmacological inhibition of endotoxin responses is achieved by targeting the TLR4 coreceptor, MD-2.

Visintin A, Halmen KA, Latz E, Monks BG, Golenbock DT.

J Immunol. 2005 Nov 15;175(10):6465-72.


Toll-like receptor 4 region Glu24-Lys47 is a site for MD-2 binding: importance of CYS29 and CYS40.

Nishitani C, Mitsuzawa H, Sano H, Shimizu T, Matsushima N, Kuroki Y.

J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 15;281(50):38322-9. Epub 2006 Oct 20.


Human MD-2 discrimination of meningococcal lipid A structures and activation of TLR4.

Zimmer SM, Zughaier SM, Tzeng YL, Stephens DS.

Glycobiology. 2007 Aug;17(8):847-56. Epub 2007 Jun 2.


Interaction of soluble form of recombinant extracellular TLR4 domain with MD-2 enables lipopolysaccharide binding and attenuates TLR4-mediated signaling.

Hyakushima N, Mitsuzawa H, Nishitani C, Sano H, Kuronuma K, Konishi M, Himi T, Miyake K, Kuroki Y.

J Immunol. 2004 Dec 1;173(11):6949-54.


Preparation and characterization of truncated human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in Escherichia coli.

Kohara J, Tsuneyoshi N, Gauchat JF, Kimoto M, Fukudome K.

Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Oct;49(2):276-83. Epub 2006 Jun 6.


A single amino acid of toll-like receptor 4 that is pivotal for its signal transduction and subcellular localization.

Yanagimoto S, Tatsuno K, Okugawa S, Kitazawa T, Tsukada K, Koike K, Kodama T, Kimura S, Shibasaki Y, Ota Y.

J Biol Chem. 2009 Feb 6;284(6):3513-20. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M803086200. Epub 2008 Dec 8.


Structural regions of MD-2 that determine the agonist-antagonist activity of lipid IVa.

Muroi M, Tanamoto K.

J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 3;281(9):5484-91. Epub 2005 Dec 31.


Lipid A antagonist, lipid IVa, is distinct from lipid A in interaction with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD-2 and ligand-induced TLR4 oligomerization.

Saitoh S, Akashi S, Yamada T, Tanimura N, Kobayashi M, Konno K, Matsumoto F, Fukase K, Kusumoto S, Nagai Y, Kusumoto Y, Kosugi A, Miyake K.

Int Immunol. 2004 Jul;16(7):961-9. Epub 2004 Jun 7.


Ligand-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-oligomerization is directly linked with TLR4-signaling.

Saitoh S, Akashi S, Yamada T, Tanimura N, Matsumoto F, Fukase K, Kusumoto S, Kosugi A, Miyake K.

J Endotoxin Res. 2004;10(4):257-60.


Mutational analysis of membrane and soluble forms of human MD-2.

Viriyakosol S, Tobias PS, Kirkland TN.

J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 28;281(17):11955-64. Epub 2006 Feb 8.


Comparison of lipopolysaccharide-binding functions of CD14 and MD-2.

Koraha J, Tsuneyoshi N, Kimoto M, Gauchat JF, Nakatake H, Fukudome K.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 Nov;12(11):1292-7.


The functional and structural properties of MD-2 required for lipopolysaccharide binding are absent in MD-1.

Tsuneyoshi N, Fukudome K, Kohara J, Tomimasu R, Gauchat JF, Nakatake H, Kimoto M.

J Immunol. 2005 Jan 1;174(1):340-4.


Novel roles in human MD-2 of phenylalanines 121 and 126 and tyrosine 131 in activation of Toll-like receptor 4 by endotoxin.

Teghanemt A, Re F, Prohinar P, Widstrom R, Gioannini TL, Weiss JP.

J Biol Chem. 2008 Jan 18;283(3):1257-66. Epub 2007 Oct 30.


The lipopolysaccharide-recognition mechanism in cells expressing TLR4 and CD14 but lacking MD-2.

Ohnishi T, Muroi M, Tanamoto K.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007 Oct;51(1):84-91. Epub 2007 Jul 5.


The amino-terminal region of toll-like receptor 4 is essential for binding to MD-2 and receptor translocation to the cell surface.

Fujimoto T, Yamazaki S, Eto-Kimura A, Takeshige K, Muta T.

J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 12;279(46):47431-7. Epub 2004 Aug 26.

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