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The Cfr rRNA methyltransferase confers resistance to Phenicols, Lincosamides, Oxazolidinones, Pleuromutilins, and Streptogramin A antibiotics.

Long KS, Poehlsgaard J, Kehrenberg C, Schwarz S, Vester B.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Jul;50(7):2500-5.


First report of cfr-mediated resistance to linezolid in human staphylococcal clinical isolates recovered in the United States.

Mendes RE, Deshpande LM, Castanheira M, DiPersio J, Saubolle MA, Jones RN.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Jun;52(6):2244-6. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00231-08. Epub 2008 Apr 7.


The order Bacillales hosts functional homologs of the worrisome cfr antibiotic resistance gene.

Hansen LH, Planellas MH, Long KS, Vester B.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jul;56(7):3563-7. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00673-12. Epub 2012 Apr 30.


A new mechanism for chloramphenicol, florfenicol and clindamycin resistance: methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA at A2503.

Kehrenberg C, Schwarz S, Jacobsen L, Hansen LH, Vester B.

Mol Microbiol. 2005 Aug;57(4):1064-73.


Investigation of a multiresistance gene cfr that fails to mediate resistance to phenicols and oxazolidinones in Enterococcus faecalis.

Liu Y, Wang Y, Schwarz S, Wang S, Chen L, Wu C, Shen J.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Apr;69(4):892-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt459. Epub 2013 Nov 21.


Origin and evolution of genes specifying resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics: data and hypotheses.

Arthur M, Brisson-Noël A, Courvalin P.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987 Dec;20(6):783-802. Review.


The enterococcal ABC transporter gene lsa(E) confers combined resistance to lincosamides, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A antibiotics in methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Wendlandt S, Lozano C, Kadlec K, Gómez-Sanz E, Zarazaga M, Torres C, Schwarz S.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Feb;68(2):473-5. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks398. Epub 2012 Oct 9. No abstract available.


Linezolid and tiamulin cross-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus mediated by point mutations in the peptidyl transferase center.

Miller K, Dunsmore CJ, Fishwick CW, Chopra I.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 May;52(5):1737-42. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01015-07. Epub 2008 Jan 7.


Identification of a novel vga(E) gene variant that confers resistance to pleuromutilins, lincosamides and streptogramin A antibiotics in staphylococci of porcine origin.

Li J, Li B, Wendlandt S, Schwarz S, Wang Y, Wu C, Ma Z, Shen J.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Apr;69(4):919-23. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt482. Epub 2013 Dec 8.


Clinical and microbiological aspects of linezolid resistance mediated by the cfr gene encoding a 23S rRNA methyltransferase.

Arias CA, Vallejo M, Reyes J, Panesso D, Moreno J, Castañeda E, Villegas MV, Murray BE, Quinn JP.

J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Mar;46(3):892-6. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01886-07. Epub 2008 Jan 3.


Novel locus required for expression of high-level macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

Martin PK, Bao Y, Boyer E, Winterberg KM, McDowell L, Schmid MB, Buysse JM.

J Bacteriol. 2002 Oct;184(20):5810-3.


TR-700 in vitro activity against and resistance mutation frequencies among Gram-positive pathogens.

Jones RN, Moet GJ, Sader HS, Mendes RE, Castanheira M.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Apr;63(4):716-20. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkp021. Epub 2009 Feb 13.


IS21-558 insertion sequences are involved in the mobility of the multiresistance gene cfr.

Kehrenberg C, Aarestrup FM, Schwarz S.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Feb;51(2):483-7. Epub 2006 Dec 4.


Low fitness cost of the multidrug resistance gene cfr.

LaMarre JM, Locke JB, Shaw KJ, Mankin AS.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Aug;55(8):3714-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00153-11. Epub 2011 Jun 6.


Distinction between the Cfr methyltransferase conferring antibiotic resistance and the housekeeping RlmN methyltransferase.

Atkinson GC, Hansen LH, Tenson T, Rasmussen A, Kirpekar F, Vester B.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Aug;57(8):4019-26. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00448-13. Epub 2013 Jun 10.


First report of the multidrug resistance gene cfr and the phenicol resistance gene fexA in a Bacillus strain from swine feces.

Dai L, Wu CM, Wang MG, Wang Y, Wang Y, Huang SY, Xia LN, Li BB, Shen JZ.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Sep;54(9):3953-5. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00169-10. Epub 2010 Jun 28.


Identification of 8-methyladenosine as the modification catalyzed by the radical SAM methyltransferase Cfr that confers antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Giessing AM, Jensen SS, Rasmussen A, Hansen LH, Gondela A, Long K, Vester B, Kirpekar F.

RNA. 2009 Feb;15(2):327-36. doi: 10.1261/rna.1371409.


Distribution of the multidrug resistance gene cfr in Staphylococcus species isolates from swine farms in China.

Wang Y, Zhang W, Wang J, Wu C, Shen Z, Fu X, Yan Y, Zhang Q, Schwarz S, Shen J.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Mar;56(3):1485-90. doi: 10.1128/AAC.05827-11. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

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