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A pilot clinical trial of a recombinant ricin vaccine in normal humans.

Vitetta ES, Smallshaw JE, Coleman E, Jafri H, Foster C, Munford R, Schindler J.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 14;103(7):2268-73. Epub 2006 Feb 3. Erratum in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 14;103(11):4328.


Preclinical toxicity and efficacy testing of RiVax, a recombinant protein vaccine against ricin.

Smallshaw JE, Richardson JA, Pincus S, Schindler J, Vitetta ES.

Vaccine. 2005 Sep 15;23(39):4775-84.


Thermostable ricin vaccine protects rhesus macaques against aerosolized ricin: Epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies correlate with protection.

Roy CJ, Brey RN, Mantis NJ, Mapes K, Pop IV, Pop LM, Ruback S, Killeen SZ, Doyle-Meyers L, Vinet-Oliphant HS, Didier PJ, Vitetta ES.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 24;112(12):3782-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1502585112. Epub 2015 Mar 9.


Pilot phase IB clinical trial of an alhydrogel-adsorbed recombinant ricin vaccine.

Vitetta ES, Smallshaw JE, Schindler J.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012 Oct;19(10):1697-9. Epub 2012 Aug 22.


RiVax, a recombinant ricin subunit vaccine, protects mice against ricin delivered by gavage or aerosol.

Smallshaw JE, Richardson JA, Vitetta ES.

Vaccine. 2007 Oct 16;25(42):7459-69. Epub 2007 Aug 30.


Comparative efficacy of two leading candidate ricin toxin a subunit vaccines in mice.

O'Hara JM, Brey RN 3rd, Mantis NJ.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Jun;20(6):789-94. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00098-13. Epub 2013 Mar 20.


Strong protection against ricin challenge induced by a novel modified ricin A-chain protein in mouse model.

Zhang T, Yang H, Kang L, Gao S, Xin W, Yao W, Zhuang X, Ji B, Wang J.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015;11(7):1779-87. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2015.1038446.


Effect of single-point mutations on the stability and immunogenicity of a recombinant ricin A chain subunit vaccine antigen.

Thomas JC, O'Hara JM, Hu L, Gao FP, Joshi SB, Volkin DB, Brey RN, Fang J, Karanicolas J, Mantis NJ, Middaugh CR.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Apr;9(4):744-52. doi: 10.4161/hv.22998. Epub 2013 Apr 1.


Safety and immunogenicity of ricin vaccine, RVEc™, in a Phase 1 clinical trial.

Pittman PR, Reisler RB, Lindsey CY, Güereña F, Rivard R, Clizbe DP, Chambers M, Norris S, Smith LA.

Vaccine. 2015 Dec 16;33(51):7299-306. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.10.094. Epub 2015 Nov 3.


Structure of RiVax: a recombinant ricin vaccine.

Legler PM, Brey RN, Smallshaw JE, Vitetta ES, Millard CB.

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011 Sep;67(Pt 9):826-30. doi: 10.1107/S0907444911026771. Epub 2011 Aug 9.


A monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody directed against an immunodominant linear epitope on the ricin A chain confers systemic and mucosal immunity to ricin.

Neal LM, O'Hara J, Brey RN 3rd, Mantis NJ.

Infect Immun. 2010 Jan;78(1):552-61. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00796-09. Epub 2009 Oct 26.


A recombinant chimeric protein containing B chains of ricin and abrin is an effective vaccine candidate.

Wang J, Gao S, Zhang T, Kang L, Cao W, Xu N, Liu W, Wang J.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10(4):938-44. Epub 2014 Feb 7.


Process development and cGMP manufacturing of a recombinant ricin vaccine: an effective and stable recombinant ricin A-chain vaccine-RVEc™.

Meagher MM, Seravalli JG, Swanson ST, Ladd RG, Khasa YP, Inan M, Harner JC, Johnson SK, Van Cott K, Lindsey C, Wannemacher R, Smith LA.

Biotechnol Prog. 2011 Jul;27(4):1036-47. doi: 10.1002/btpr.631. Epub 2011 May 31.


A novel recombinant vaccine which protects mice against ricin intoxication.

Smallshaw JE, Firan A, Fulmer JR, Ruback SL, Ghetie V, Vitetta ES.

Vaccine. 2002 Sep 10;20(27-28):3422-7.


Intradermal administration of RiVax protects mice from mucosal and systemic ricin intoxication.

Marconescu PS, Smallshaw JE, Pop LM, Ruback SL, Vitetta ES.

Vaccine. 2010 Jul 19;28(32):5315-22. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.045. Epub 2010 Jun 1.


Disruption of the putative vascular leak peptide sequence in the stabilized ricin vaccine candidate RTA1-33/44-198.

Janosi L, Compton JR, Legler PM, Steele KE, Davis JM, Matyas GR, Millard CB.

Toxins (Basel). 2013 Jan 30;5(2):224-48. doi: 10.3390/toxins5020224.


Passive and active vaccination strategies to prevent ricin poisoning.

Pincus SH, Smallshaw JE, Song K, Berry J, Vitetta ES.

Toxins (Basel). 2011 Sep;3(9):1163-84. doi: 10.3390/toxins3091163. Epub 2011 Sep 15. Review.


Localization of non-linear neutralizing B cell epitopes on ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit (RTA).

O'Hara JM, Kasten-Jolly JC, Reynolds CE, Mantis NJ.

Immunol Lett. 2014 Mar-Apr;158(1-2):7-13. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2013.11.009. Epub 2013 Nov 21.


LT-IIb(T13I), a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.

Greene CJ, Chadwick CM, Mandell LM, Hu JC, O'Hara JM, Brey RN 3rd, Mantis NJ, Connell TD.

PLoS One. 2013 Aug 2;8(8):e69678. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069678. Print 2013.


Protective effect of two recombinant ricin subunit vaccines in the New Zealand white rabbit subjected to a lethal aerosolized ricin challenge: survival, immunological response, and histopathological findings.

McLain DE, Lewis BS, Chapman JL, Wannemacher RW, Lindsey CY, Smith LA.

Toxicol Sci. 2012 Mar;126(1):72-83. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr274. Epub 2011 Oct 10.


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