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MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is phosphorylated by Bruton's tyrosine kinase during TLR2 and TLR4 signal transduction.

Gray P, Dunne A, Brikos C, Jefferies CA, Doyle SL, O'Neill LA.

J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 14;281(15):10489-95. Epub 2006 Jan 26.


Bruton's tyrosine kinase is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-binding protein that participates in nuclear factor kappaB activation by Toll-like receptor 4.

Jefferies CA, Doyle S, Brunner C, Dunne A, Brint E, Wietek C, Walch E, Wirth T, O'Neill LA.

J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 11;278(28):26258-64. Epub 2003 Apr 30.


Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) is required for Toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction.

Fitzgerald KA, Palsson-McDermott EM, Bowie AG, Jefferies CA, Mansell AS, Brady G, Brint E, Dunne A, Gray P, Harte MT, McMurray D, Smith DE, Sims JE, Bird TA, O'Neill LA.

Nature. 2001 Sep 6;413(6851):78-83.


TIR-containing adapter molecule (TICAM)-2, a bridging adapter recruiting to toll-like receptor 4 TICAM-1 that induces interferon-beta.

Oshiumi H, Sasai M, Shida K, Fujita T, Matsumoto M, Seya T.

J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 12;278(50):49751-62. Epub 2003 Sep 30.


Distinct pathways of LPS-induced NF-kappa B activation and cytokine production in human myeloid and nonmyeloid cells defined by selective utilization of MyD88 and Mal/TIRAP.

Andreakos E, Sacre SM, Smith C, Lundberg A, Kiriakidis S, Stonehouse T, Monaco C, Feldmann M, Foxwell BM.

Blood. 2004 Mar 15;103(6):2229-37. Epub 2003 Nov 20.


Structural complementarity of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains in Toll-like receptors and the adaptors Mal and MyD88.

Dunne A, Ejdeback M, Ludidi PL, O'Neill LA, Gay NJ.

J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 17;278(42):41443-51. Epub 2003 Jul 29.


Mal and MyD88: adapter proteins involved in signal transduction by Toll-like receptors.

O'Neill LA, Dunne A, Edjeback M, Gray P, Jefferies C, Wietek C.

J Endotoxin Res. 2003;9(1):55-9. Review.


Structural evaluation of BTK and PKCĪ“ mediated phosphorylation of MAL at positions Tyr86 and Tyr106.

Paracha RZ, Ali A, Ahmad J, Hussain R, Niazi U, Muhammad SA.

Comput Biol Chem. 2014 Aug;51:22-35. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2014.04.001. Epub 2014 Apr 20.


MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP interaction with TRAF6 is critical for TLR2- and TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB proinflammatory responses.

Verstak B, Nagpal K, Bottomley SP, Golenbock DT, Hertzog PJ, Mansell A.

J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 4;284(36):24192-203. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.023044. Epub 2009 Jul 10.


Molecular analysis of the binding mode of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain proteins during TLR2 signaling.

Nada M, Ohnishi H, Tochio H, Kato Z, Kimura T, Kubota K, Yamamoto T, Kamatari YO, Tsutsumi N, Shirakawa M, Kondo N.

Mol Immunol. 2012 Oct;52(3-4):108-16. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2012.05.003. Epub 2012 Jun 4.


Tyrosine phosphorylation of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is critical for signal transduction and blocked in endotoxin tolerance.

Piao W, Song C, Chen H, Wahl LM, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA, Medvedev AE.

J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 8;283(6):3109-19. Epub 2007 Dec 10.


Targeting Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein/MyD88 adapter-like (TIRAP/Mal)-derived decoy peptides.

Couture LA, Piao W, Ru LW, Vogel SN, Toshchakov VY.

J Biol Chem. 2012 Jul 13;287(29):24641-8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.360925. Epub 2012 May 30.


Essential role for TIRAP in activation of the signalling cascade shared by TLR2 and TLR4.

Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H, Sanjo H, Uematsu S, Kaisho T, Hoshino K, Takeuchi O, Kobayashi M, Fujita T, Takeda K, Akira S.

Nature. 2002 Nov 21;420(6913):324-9.


A TIR domain variant of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP results in loss of MyD88 binding and reduced TLR2/TLR4 signaling.

Nagpal K, Plantinga TS, Wong J, Monks BG, Gay NJ, Netea MG, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT.

J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 18;284(38):25742-8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.014886. Epub 2009 Jun 9.


Caspase-1 targets the TLR adaptor Mal at a crucial TIR-domain interaction site.

Ulrichts P, Bovijn C, Lievens S, Beyaert R, Tavernier J, Peelman F.

J Cell Sci. 2010 Jan 15;123(Pt 2):256-65. doi: 10.1242/jcs.056002.


Cutting edge: a novel Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter that preferentially activates the IFN-beta promoter in the Toll-like receptor signaling.

Yamamoto M, Sato S, Mori K, Hoshino K, Takeuchi O, Takeda K, Akira S.

J Immunol. 2002 Dec 15;169(12):6668-72.


The scaffold MyD88 acts to couple protein kinase Cepsilon to Toll-like receptors.

Faisal A, Saurin A, Gregory B, Foxwell B, Parker PJ.

J Biol Chem. 2008 Jul 4;283(27):18591-600. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M710330200. Epub 2008 May 5.

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