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The expression of toll-like receptors 3 and 7 in rheumatoid arthritis synovium is increased and costimulation of toll-like receptors 3, 4, and 7/8 results in synergistic cytokine production by dendritic cells.

Roelofs MF, Joosten LA, Abdollahi-Roodsaz S, van Lieshout AW, Sprong T, van den Hoogen FH, van den Berg WB, Radstake TR.

Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Aug;52(8):2313-22.


Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 on CD16+ blood monocytes and synovial tissue macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis.

Iwahashi M, Yamamura M, Aita T, Okamoto A, Ueno A, Ogawa N, Akashi S, Miyake K, Godowski PJ, Makino H.

Arthritis Rheum. 2004 May;50(5):1457-67.


Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in rheumatoid synovial tissue and regulation by proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 via interferon-gamma.

Radstake TR, Roelofs MF, Jenniskens YM, Oppers-Walgreen B, van Riel PL, Barrera P, Joosten LA, van den Berg WB.

Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Dec;50(12):3856-65.


RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells activates rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts via Toll-like receptor 3.

Brentano F, Schorr O, Gay RE, Gay S, Kyburz D.

Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Sep;52(9):2656-65.


Overexpression of toll-like receptors 3 and 4 in synovial tissue from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: toll-like receptor expression in early and longstanding arthritis.

Ospelt C, Brentano F, Rengel Y, Stanczyk J, Kolling C, Tak PP, Gay RE, Gay S, Kyburz D.

Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Dec;58(12):3684-92. doi: 10.1002/art.24140.


MIF production by dendritic cells is differentially regulated by Toll-like receptors and increased during rheumatoid arthritis.

Popa C, van Lieshout AW, Roelofs MF, Geurts-Moespot A, van Riel PL, Calandra T, Sweep FC, Radstake TR.

Cytokine. 2006 Oct;36(1-2):51-6. Epub 2006 Dec 12.


Bacterial peptidoglycans but not CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate synovial fibroblasts by toll-like receptor signaling.

Kyburz D, Rethage J, Seibl R, Lauener R, Gay RE, Carson DA, Gay S.

Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Mar;48(3):642-50.


Type I interferons might form the link between Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3/7 and TLR4-mediated synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Roelofs MF, Wenink MH, Brentano F, Abdollahi-Roodsaz S, Oppers-Walgreen B, Barrera P, van Riel PL, Joosten LA, Kyburz D, van den Berg WB, Radstake TR.

Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Sep;68(9):1486-93. doi: 10.1136/ard.2007.086421. Epub 2008 Sep 2.


Increased macrophage activation mediated through toll-like receptors in rheumatoid arthritis.

Huang Q, Ma Y, Adebayo A, Pope RM.

Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jul;56(7):2192-201.


Identification of small heat shock protein B8 (HSP22) as a novel TLR4 ligand and potential involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Roelofs MF, Boelens WC, Joosten LA, Abdollahi-Roodsaz S, Geurts J, Wunderink LU, Schreurs BW, van den Berg WB, Radstake TR.

J Immunol. 2006 Jun 1;176(11):7021-7.


Toll-like receptor ligands modulate dendritic cells to augment cytomegalovirus- and HIV-1-specific T cell responses.

Loré K, Betts MR, Brenchley JM, Kuruppu J, Khojasteh S, Perfetto S, Roederer M, Seder RA, Koup RA.

J Immunol. 2003 Oct 15;171(8):4320-8.


Toll-like receptor-2 expression is upregulated in antigen-presenting cells from patients with psoriatic arthritis: a pathogenic role for innate immunity?

Candia L, Marquez J, Hernandez C, Zea AH, Espinoza LR.

J Rheumatol. 2007 Feb;34(2):374-9. Epub 2006 Dec 15.


Chemokine secretion of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts stimulated by Toll-like receptor 2 ligands.

Pierer M, Rethage J, Seibl R, Lauener R, Brentano F, Wagner U, Hantzschel H, Michel BA, Gay RE, Gay S, Kyburz D.

J Immunol. 2004 Jan 15;172(2):1256-65. Erratum in: J Immunol. 2004 Feb 15;172(4):following 2703.


Expression, regulation, and signaling of the pattern-recognition receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

Ospelt C, Brentano F, Jüngel A, Rengel Y, Kolling C, Michel BA, Gay RE, Gay S.

Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Feb;60(2):355-63. doi: 10.1002/art.24226.


Increased expression of Fcgamma receptors II and III on macrophages of rheumatoid arthritis patients results in higher production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase.

Blom AB, Radstake TR, Holthuysen AE, Slöetjes AW, Pesman GJ, Sweep FG, van de Loo FA, Joosten LA, Barrera P, van Lent PL, van den Berg WB.

Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Apr;48(4):1002-14.


The pattern-recognition receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain--containing protein 1 promotes production of inflammatory mediators in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

Yokota K, Miyazaki T, Hemmatazad H, Gay RE, Kolling C, Fearon U, Suzuki H, Mimura T, Gay S, Ospelt C.

Arthritis Rheum. 2012 May;64(5):1329-37. doi: 10.1002/art.34318.


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