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The Distinct and Cooperative Roles of Toll-Like Receptor 9 and Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Modulating In Vivo Inflammatory Responses to Select CpG and Non-CpG Oligonucleotides.

Paz S, Hsiao J, Cauntay P, Soriano A, Bai L, Machemer T, Xiao X, Guo S, Hung G, Younis H, Bennett CF, Henry S, Yun TJ, Burel S.

Nucleic Acid Ther. 2017 Oct;27(5):272-284. doi: 10.1089/nat.2017.0668. Epub 2017 Jun 12.


Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9.

Lee LM, Ji M, Sinha M, Dong MB, Ren X, Wang Y, Lowell CA, Ghosh S, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL.

PLoS One. 2016 Dec 15;11(12):e0167693. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167693. eCollection 2016.


Cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligonucleotides induce interleukin-8 production through activation of TLR9, MyD88, NF-κB, and ERK pathways in odontoblast cells.

He W, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Yu Q, Wang P, Wang Z, Smith AJ.

J Endod. 2012 Jun;38(6):780-5. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2012.02.026. Epub 2012 Apr 4.


CpG oligonucleotide activates Toll-like receptor 9 and causes lung inflammation in vivo.

Knuefermann P, Baumgarten G, Koch A, Schwederski M, Velten M, Ehrentraut H, Mersmann J, Meyer R, Hoeft A, Zacharowski K, Grohé C.

Respir Res. 2007 Oct 9;8:72.


CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide-induced TLR9 activation regulates macrophage TREM-1 expression and shedding.

Molad Y, Pokroy-Shapira E, Carmon V.

Innate Immun. 2013 Dec;19(6):623-30. doi: 10.1177/1753425913476970. Epub 2013 Mar 8.


Diabetes Exacerbates Infection via Hyperinflammation by Signaling through TLR4 and RAGE.

Nielsen TB, Pantapalangkoor P, Yan J, Luna BM, Dekitani K, Bruhn K, Tan B, Junus J, Bonomo RA, Schmidt AM, Everson M, Duncanson F, Doherty TM, Lin L, Spellberg B.

MBio. 2017 Aug 22;8(4). pii: e00818-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00818-17.


Involvement of DNA-PKcs in the type I IFN response to CpG-ODNs in conventional dendritic cells in TLR9-dependent or -independent manners.

Ma C, Spies NP, Gong T, Jones CX, Chu WM.

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 26;10(3):e0121371. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121371. eCollection 2015.


Oligodeoxynucleotides lacking CpG dinucleotides mediate Toll-like receptor 9 dependent T helper type 2 biased immune stimulation.

Vollmer J, Weeratna RD, Jurk M, Samulowitz U, McCluskie MJ, Payette P, Davis HL, Schetter C, Krieg AM.

Immunology. 2004 Oct;113(2):212-23.


Newly identified CpG ODNs, M5-30 and M6-395, stimulate mouse immune cells to secrete TNF-alpha and enhance Th1-mediated immunity.

Choi SS, Chung E, Jung YJ.

J Microbiol. 2010 Aug;48(4):512-7. doi: 10.1007/s12275-010-0053-6. Epub 2010 Aug 20.


Toll-like receptor agonists induce apoptosis in mouse B-cell lymphoma cells by altering NF-κB activation.

Arunkumar N, Liu C, Hang H, Song W.

Cell Mol Immunol. 2013 Jul;10(4):360-72. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2013.14. Epub 2013 Jun 3.


Mammalian DNA is an endogenous danger signal that stimulates local synthesis and release of complement factor B.

Kaczorowski DJ, Scott MJ, Pibris JP, Afrazi A, Nakao A, Edmonds RD, Kim S, Kwak JH, Liu Y, Fan J, Billiar TR.

Mol Med. 2012 Jul 18;18:851-60. doi: 10.2119/molmed.2012.00011.


Differential contribution of osteoclast- and osteoblast-lineage cells to CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) modulation of osteoclastogenesis.

Amcheslavsky A, Hemmi H, Akira S, Bar-Shavit Z.

J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Sep;20(9):1692-9. Epub 2005 May 23.


CpG oligonucleotides induce an immune response of odontoblasts through the TLR9, MyD88 and NF-kappaB pathways.

He W, Yu Q, Zhou Z, Wang P.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Aug 20;399(2):274-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.07.068. Epub 2010 Jul 21.


Granulin is a soluble cofactor for toll-like receptor 9 signaling.

Park B, Buti L, Lee S, Matsuwaki T, Spooner E, Brinkmann MM, Nishihara M, Ploegh HL.

Immunity. 2011 Apr 22;34(4):505-13. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.01.018. Epub 2011 Apr 14.


Guanine-modified inhibitory oligonucleotides efficiently impair TLR7- and TLR9-mediated immune responses of human immune cells.

Römmler F, Hammel M, Waldhuber A, Müller T, Jurk M, Uhlmann E, Wagner H, Vollmer J, Miethke T.

PLoS One. 2015 Feb 19;10(2):e0116703. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116703. eCollection 2015.


TLR9 ligand CpG-ODN applied to the injured mouse cornea elicits retinal inflammation.

Chinnery HR, McLenachan S, Binz N, Sun Y, Forrester JV, Degli-Esposti MA, Pearlman E, McMenamin PG.

Am J Pathol. 2012 Jan;180(1):209-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.09.041. Epub 2011 Nov 12.


Competition by inhibitory oligonucleotides prevents binding of CpG to C-terminal TLR9.

Avalos AM, Ploegh HL.

Eur J Immunol. 2011 Oct;41(10):2820-7. doi: 10.1002/eji.201141563. Epub 2011 Sep 6.


Mannose receptor 1 mediates cellular uptake and endosomal delivery of CpG-motif containing oligodeoxynucleotides.

Moseman AP, Moseman EA, Schworer S, Smirnova I, Volkova T, von Andrian U, Poltorak A.

J Immunol. 2013 Dec 1;191(11):5615-24. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301438. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

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