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Human cathelicidin production by the cervix.

Frew L, Makieva S, McKinlay AT, McHugh BJ, Doust A, Norman JE, Davidson DJ, Stock SJ.

PLoS One. 2014 Aug 4;9(8):e103434. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103434. eCollection 2014.


Human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein 18 (hCAP18/LL-37) is increased in foetal membranes and myometrium after spontaneous labour and delivery.

Lim R, Barker G, Lappas M.

J Reprod Immunol. 2015 Feb;107:31-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jri.2014.10.002. Epub 2014 Nov 11.


Proinflammatory Cytokines Impair Vitamin D-Induced Host Defense in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells.

Schrumpf JA, Amatngalim GD, Veldkamp JB, Verhoosel RM, Ninaber DK, Ordonez SR, van der Does AM, Haagsman HP, Hiemstra PS.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017 Jun;56(6):749-761. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2016-0289OC.


Antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 is highly expressed in breast cancer and is a putative growth factor for epithelial cells.

Heilborn JD, Nilsson MF, Jimenez CI, Sandstedt B, Borregaard N, Tham E, Sørensen OE, Weber G, Ståhle M.

Int J Cancer. 2005 May 1;114(5):713-9.


Interleukin 13 exposure enhances vitamin D-mediated expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide 18/LL-37 in bronchial epithelial cells.

Schrumpf JA, van Sterkenburg MA, Verhoosel RM, Zuyderduyn S, Hiemstra PS.

Infect Immun. 2012 Dec;80(12):4485-94. doi: 10.1128/IAI.06224-11. Epub 2012 Oct 8.


Expression of LL-37 by human gastric epithelial cells as a potential host defense mechanism against Helicobacter pylori.

Hase K, Murakami M, Iimura M, Cole SP, Horibe Y, Ohtake T, Obonyo M, Gallo RL, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF.

Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec;125(6):1613-25.


Topical treatment with the vitamin D analogue calcipotriol enhances the upregulation of the antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 during wounding in human skin in vivo.

Heilborn JD, Weber G, Grönberg A, Dieterich C, Ståhle M.

Exp Dermatol. 2010 Apr;19(4):332-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00997.x. Epub 2009 Oct 28.


Regulation of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary immune cells.

Lowry MB, Guo C, Borregaard N, Gombart AF.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Sep;143:183-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.02.004. Epub 2014 Feb 22.


Host Defense Peptide Expression in Human Cervical Cells and Regulation by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the Presence of Cytokines and Bacterial Endotoxin.

Chin-Smith EC, Hezelgrave NL, Tribe RM.

Reprod Sci. 2018 Aug;25(8):1208-1217. doi: 10.1177/1933719117737847. Epub 2017 Nov 5.


The human cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37: a multifunctional peptide involved in mycobacterial infections.

Méndez-Samperio P.

Peptides. 2010 Sep;31(9):1791-8. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2010.06.016. Epub 2010 Jun 25. Review.


Elafin (SKALP/Trappin-2/proteinase inhibitor-3) is produced by the cervix in pregnancy and cervicovaginal levels are diminished in bacterial vaginosis.

Stock SJ, Duthie L, Tremaine T, Calder AA, Kelly RW, Riley SC.

Reprod Sci. 2009 Dec;16(12):1125-34. doi: 10.1177/1933719109341998. Epub 2009 Sep 1.


Positive correlation between circulating cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18/LL-37) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy adults.

Dixon BM, Barker T, McKinnon T, Cuomo J, Frei B, Borregaard N, Gombart AF.

BMC Res Notes. 2012 Oct 24;5:575. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-575.


Impact of high-dose vitamin D3 on plasma free 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and antimicrobial peptides in critically ill mechanically ventilated adults.

Han JE, Alvarez JA, Jones JL, Tangpricha V, Brown MA, Hao L, Brown LAS, Martin GS, Ziegler TR.

Nutrition. 2017 Jun;38:102-108. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.02.002. Epub 2017 Feb 27.


Cytokines, pregnancy, and bacterial vaginosis: comparison of levels of cervical cytokines in pregnant and nonpregnant women with bacterial vaginosis.

Beigi RH, Yudin MH, Cosentino L, Meyn LA, Hillier SL.

J Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 1;196(9):1355-60. Epub 2007 Sep 26.


Toll-like receptor activation modulates antimicrobial peptide expression by ocular surface cells.

Redfern RL, Reins RY, McDermott AM.

Exp Eye Res. 2011 Mar;92(3):209-20. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2010.12.005. Epub 2010 Dec 31.


Structure-function relationships among human cathelicidin peptides: dissociation of antimicrobial properties from host immunostimulatory activities.

Braff MH, Hawkins MA, Di Nardo A, Lopez-Garcia B, Howell MD, Wong C, Lin K, Streib JE, Dorschner R, Leung DY, Gallo RL.

J Immunol. 2005 Apr 1;174(7):4271-8.


The human cationic antimicrobial protein (hCAP18), a peptide antibiotic, is widely expressed in human squamous epithelia and colocalizes with interleukin-6.

Frohm Nilsson M, Sandstedt B, Sørensen O, Weber G, Borregaard N, Ståhle-Bäckdahl M.

Infect Immun. 1999 May;67(5):2561-6.


The host defense peptide LL-37 is detected in human parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva and expressed in glandular neutrophils.

Svensson D, Aidoukovitch A, Anders E, Agerberth B, Andersson F, Ekblad E, Ericson D, Nebel D, Voss U, Nilsson BO.

Eur J Oral Sci. 2018 Apr;126(2):93-100. doi: 10.1111/eos.12407. Epub 2018 Feb 9.


The cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide LL-37 is involved in re-epithelialization of human skin wounds and is lacking in chronic ulcer epithelium.

Heilborn JD, Nilsson MF, Kratz G, Weber G, Sørensen O, Borregaard N, Ståhle-Bäckdahl M.

J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Mar;120(3):379-89.

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