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Fungal chitin dampens inflammation through IL-10 induction mediated by NOD2 and TLR9 activation.

Wagener J, Malireddi RK, Lenardon MD, Köberle M, Vautier S, MacCallum DM, Biedermann T, Schaller M, Netea MG, Kanneganti TD, Brown GD, Brown AJ, Gow NA.

PLoS Pathog. 2014 Apr 10;10(4):e1004050. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004050. eCollection 2014 Apr.


Candida albicans Chitin Increases Arginase-1 Activity in Human Macrophages, with an Impact on Macrophage Antimicrobial Functions.

Wagener J, MacCallum DM, Brown GD, Gow NA.

MBio. 2017 Jan 24;8(1). pii: e01820-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01820-16.


Chitins and chitosans as immunoadjuvants and non-allergenic drug carriers.

Muzzarelli RA.

Mar Drugs. 2010 Feb 21;8(2):292-312. doi: 10.3390/md8020292. Review.


Chitin, chitinases and chitinase-like proteins in allergic inflammation and tissue remodeling.

Lee CG.

Yonsei Med J. 2009 Feb 28;50(1):22-30. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2009.50.1.22. Epub 2009 Feb 24. Review.


Secretory mediators regulate Nod2-induced tolerance in human macrophages.

Hedl M, Abraham C.

Gastroenterology. 2011 Jan;140(1):231-41. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.09.009. Epub 2010 Sep 18.


The TLR2-MyD88-NOD2-RIPK2 signalling axis regulates a balanced pro-inflammatory and IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to Gram-positive cell walls.

Moreira LO, El Kasmi KC, Smith AM, Finkelstein D, Fillon S, Kim YG, Núñez G, Tuomanen E, Murray PJ.

Cell Microbiol. 2008 Oct;10(10):2067-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2008.01189.x. Epub 2008 Jun 28.


A possible role of chitin in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy.

Brinchmann BC, Bayat M, Brøgger T, Muttuvelu DV, Tjønneland A, Sigsgaard T.

Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18(1):7-12. Review.


Recognition and blocking of innate immunity cells by Candida albicans chitin.

Mora-Montes HM, Netea MG, Ferwerda G, Lenardon MD, Brown GD, Mistry AR, Kullberg BJ, O'Callaghan CA, Sheth CC, Odds FC, Brown AJ, Munro CA, Gow NA.

Infect Immun. 2011 May;79(5):1961-70. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01282-10. Epub 2011 Feb 28.


Bypassing pathogen-induced inflammasome activation for the regulation of interleukin-1beta production by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

van de Veerdonk FL, Joosten LA, Devesa I, Mora-Montes HM, Kanneganti TD, Dinarello CA, van der Meer JW, Gow NA, Kullberg BJ, Netea MG.

J Infect Dis. 2009 Apr 1;199(7):1087-96. doi: 10.1086/597274. Erratum in: J Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 1;199(11):1716.


Chitin regulation of immune responses: an old molecule with new roles.

Lee CG, Da Silva CA, Lee JY, Hartl D, Elias JA.

Curr Opin Immunol. 2008 Dec;20(6):684-9. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2008.10.002. Epub 2008 Nov 1.


NOD2 regulates CXCR3-dependent CD8+ T cell accumulation in intestinal tissues with acute injury.

Wu X, Lahiri A, Haines GK 3rd, Flavell RA, Abraham C.

J Immunol. 2014 Apr 1;192(7):3409-18. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1302436. Epub 2014 Mar 3.


Toll-like receptor 9 modulates macrophage antifungal effector function during innate recognition of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Kasperkovitz PV, Khan NS, Tam JM, Mansour MK, Davids PJ, Vyas JM.

Infect Immun. 2011 Dec;79(12):4858-67. doi: 10.1128/IAI.05626-11. Epub 2011 Sep 26.


IL-27 Induced by Select Candida spp. via TLR7/NOD2 Signaling and IFN-β Production Inhibits Fungal Clearance.

Patin EC, Jones AV, Thompson A, Clement M, Liao CT, Griffiths JS, Wallace LE, Bryant CE, Lang R, Rosenstiel P, Humphreys IR, Taylor PR, Jones GW, Orr SJ.

J Immunol. 2016 Jul 1;197(1):208-21. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1501204. Epub 2016 Jun 3.


Fungal chitin from asthma-associated home environments induces eosinophilic lung infiltration.

Van Dyken SJ, Garcia D, Porter P, Huang X, Quinlan PJ, Blanc PD, Corry DB, Locksley RM.

J Immunol. 2011 Sep 1;187(5):2261-7. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1100972. Epub 2011 Aug 8.


Redundant role of TLR9 for anti-Candida host defense.

van de Veerdonk FL, Netea MG, Jansen TJ, Jacobs L, Verschueren I, van der Meer JW, Kullberg BJ.

Immunobiology. 2008;213(8):613-20. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2008.05.002. Epub 2008 Jun 26.


Intranasal CpG therapy attenuated experimental fungal asthma in a TLR9-dependent and -independent manner.

Ramaprakash H, Hogaboam CM.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152(2):98-112. doi: 10.1159/000265531. Epub 2009 Dec 16.


Cytokine responses to fungal pathogens in Kupffer Cells are Toll-like receptor 4 independent and mediated by tyrosine kinases.

Overland G, Stuestøl JF, Dahle MK, Myhre AE, Netea MG, Verweij P, Yndestad A, Aukrust P, Kullberg BJ, Warris A, Wang JE, Aasen AO.

Scand J Immunol. 2005 Aug;62(2):148-54.


Induction of innate immunity by Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall polysaccharides is enhanced by the composite presentation of chitin and beta-glucan.

Dubey LK, Moeller JB, Schlosser A, Sorensen GL, Holmskov U.

Immunobiology. 2014 Mar;219(3):179-88. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2013.10.003. Epub 2013 Oct 12.


Nod2-dependent Th2 polarization of antigen-specific immunity.

Magalhaes JG, Fritz JH, Le Bourhis L, Sellge G, Travassos LH, Selvanantham T, Girardin SE, Gommerman JL, Philpott DJ.

J Immunol. 2008 Dec 1;181(11):7925-35.

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