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Virus Res. 2012 May;165(2):143-50. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2012.02.008. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Molecular characterization of a new hypovirus infecting a phytopathogenic fungus, Valsa ceratosperma.

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  • 1Apple Research Station, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Morioka 020-0123, Japan.


A double-stranded (ds) RNA, approximately 9.5kb in size; was identified in the MVC86 isolate of Valsa ceratosperma. Complete sequence of the dsRNA revealed a 9543-bp segment (excluding the 3' poly-A tail) that is predicted to encode a single large protein (P330). P330 has 63%, 49%, and 55% amino acid sequence identities to the proteins encoded by hypoviruses Cryphonectria hypovirus 3 (CHV3), CHV4, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV1), respectively. Like polyproteins encoded by CHV3, CHV4, and SsHV1, P330 comprises four conserved domains, including a papain-like protease, a UDP glucose/sterol glucosyltransferase (UGT), an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and an RNA helicase. These molecular characteristics suggest that this dsRNA represents a new hypovirus that we tentatively designate Valsa ceratosperma hypovirus 1 (VcHV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp and RNA helicase domains of VcHV1 revealed that VcHV1, CHV3, CHV4, and SsHV1 clustered together into one clade distinct from that of CHV1 and CHV2, indicating the existence of two lineages in the family Hypoviridae. Comparison of biological properties between VcHV1-infected and VcHV1-free isogenic strains did not reveal differences in colony morphology or fungal virulence under laboratory conditions.

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