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Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2020 Mar;26(2):163-170. doi: 10.14744/tjtes.2019.34359.

A novel hemostatic scaffold material and the importance of scaffold formation on ending hemorrhage: An experimental rat study.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Health Science, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri-Turkey.
Erciyes University, Hakan Çetinsaya Experimantal Animal Center, Kayseri-Turkey.
Department of Histology and Embryology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Kayseri-Turkey.
Department of Biostatistics, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Kayseri-Turkey.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Health Science, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri-Turkey.



Different pharmacological agents are developed to control bleeding. However, it is critical for these agents to induce thrombin formation and have an effect on vasoconstriction, coagulation, and scaffold. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the agents' ability to stop bleeding properties on minor and major open bleedings after skin clefts, extracorporal injuries, traumatic cuts, spontaneous or surgical intervention besides scaffold properties. For this purpose, a new and authentic hemostatic agent, processed diatomite (PD) and the most preferred chitosan in the medical area were used to test blood stopping and scaffold effects in a rat femoral bleeding model. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the results on blood stopping were shared.


The current experimental study was conducted on rats. The effects of hemostatic agents on our femoral bleeding model were determined. In this study, 22 male Wistar albino rats weighing 158-215 g, were used. The rats were assigned randomly to three groups: control group (n=6), chitosan group (n=8), and PD group (n=8). Bleeding time, scaffold formation, weight differences, histopathological effect and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were performed.


In our experimental model, weight loss was 5.0±1.3 g for the control group, 2.9±1.1 g for the chitosan group, and 2.7±1.0 g for the PD group, respectively. When weighed before and after the experiment, there was a significant change in weights of rats in chitosan, and PD groups regarding scaffold formation: it was complete for six rats (75%) and weak for two (25%) rats in chitosan group; however, it was complete for seven rats (87.5%) and weak for one (12.5%) rat in the PD group. Scaffold formation was significant for the chitosan and PD groups versus the control group (p=0.002).


In our study, the scaffold formed by PD exerts appropriate porousness and contributes to fibrin formation and prevent re-bleeding. PD had a strong and significant scaffold effect. The effectiveness of PD to stop bleeding was equal to chitosan. Besides being natural, hemostatic agents should not induce cellular damage. We histopathologically demonstrated that PD was harmless for the natural structure of cells and vessels in the femoral site.

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