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Anatol J Cardiol. 2020 Feb;23(3):128-140. doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2020.01575.

New perspectives by imaging modalities for an old illness: Rheumatic mitral stenosis.

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Department of Cardiology, Liv Hospital Ulus; İstanbul-Turkey.
Department of Cardiology, Memorial Bahçelievler Hospital; İstanbul-Turkey.
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Başkent University; Ankara-Turkey.


Mitral stenosis (MS) is a progressive and devastating disease and most often occurs among young women. Given its considerable prevalence in Mediterranean and Eastern European countries according to the Euro Heart Survey, new imaging modalities are warranted to improve the management of patients with this condition. A wide spectrum of abnormalities occurs involving all parts of this complex structure and causing different grades of MS and/or regurgitation as a consequence of rheumatic affection. Novel imaging modalities significantly improved the assessment of several aspects of this rheumatic destructive process including the morphological alterations of the mitral valve apparatus, left atrial (LA) function, LA appendage, right and left ventricular function, and complications, namely, atrial fibrillation and thromboembolic events. Furthermore, new imaging modalities improved the prediction of outcome of patients who underwent percutaneous balloon mitral comissurotomy and changed the paradigm of patient selection for intervention and risk stratification. The present review aimed to summarize the role of new multimodality, multiparametric imaging approaches to assess the morphological characteristics of the rheumatic MS and its associated complications, and to guide patient management.

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