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Agri. 2020 Jan;32(1):19-24. doi: 10.14744/agri.2019.16442.

[Anatomical differences in sacral hiatus during caudal epidural injection with ultrasonography guidance and its effects on success rate].

[Article in Turkish]

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Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Diyarbakır State Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.



To investigate the anatomical differences of sacral hiatus, pain levels and success rates during caudal epidural steroid injection (CESE) using ultrasonography.


In the study, 255 patients (148 male and 107 female) with lower lumbar back pain and sciatica were included. These patients were applied caudal epidural steroid injection by ultrasonography. Sonograms were obtained by ultrasonography (USG) guideline. Patients' pain levels were assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during the CESE procedure performed on USG guided, and success rates were saved. The intercornual distance, sacral distance and sacrococcygeal ligament thickness were measured.


There was no statistically significant difference between the demographic data of the patients (p>0.05). There was a significant difference between male and female patients concerning intercornual distance (15.8 versus 16.6 mm; p=0.004) and sacrococcygeal ligament thickness (4.1 mm vs. 3.7 mm; p=0.018). There was no significant difference between patients about KESE success rate, VAS values and sacral distance (p>0.05).


We found that sacral hiatus has anatomical differences between male and female patients. According to current evidence, the success rate of caudal epidural steroid injection increased when the anatomical structures of sacral hiatus are shown correctly in USG guided.

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