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North Clin Istanb. 2019 Oct 24;6(4):321-326. doi: 10.14744/nci.2019.93763. eCollection 2019.

The effects of obesity on sedation-related outcomes of advanced endoscopic procedures.

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Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Health Sciences University, Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
Department of Gastroenterology, Health Sciences University, Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.



Current literature covers limited data on the safety of sedation in advanced endoscopic procedures in obese patients. The present study aims to evaluate the association between obesity and the frequency of sedation-related complications in patients who were undergoing advanced endoscopic procedures.


A retrospective chart analysis of 1172 consecutive patients, meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this study and undergoing intravenous ketamine-propofol (ketofol) sedation for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures were evaluated. The patients were classified into three groups according to their body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). Group I comprised patients with a BMI between 25 and 30, group II with a BMI between 30 and 35, and group III with a BMI between 35-40. The sedation-related outcomes in the form of adverse events, and airway interventions were compared between the groups.


For analysis, out of the 1172 available records, 289 patients had a BMI between 35-40 and were predominantly male patients. The total adverse events were more common in obese patients, with apnea (in 5.5% patients in group I, 5.7% in group II, 22.8% in group III p<0.000), oxygen desaturation (in 7.7% patients in group I, 9.4% in group II, and 27.7% in group III p<0.000), and airway obstruction (in 4.9% patients in group I, 5.4% in group II, 22.8% in group III, p<0.000). Moreover, the obese patients more frequently required airway interventions, including airway placement, suctioning and bag-mask ventilation.


Higher BMI was associated with an increased frequency of sedation-related complications. However, we concluded that ketofol sedation regimen could be used safely in obese patients during advanced endoscopic procedures by skilled anesthesia providers.


Advanced endoscopic procedures; airway interventions; ketofol; obesity; sedation

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.

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