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Agri. 2019 Nov;31(4):163-171. doi: 10.14744/agri.2019.99266.

Validity and reliability of Turkish version of STarT Back Screening Tool.

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Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Cyprus Science University School of Health Science, Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic, Northern Cyprus.
Department of Exercise and Physiotherapy, Presidential Guard, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, İstinye University Faculty of Health Science, Istanbul, Turkey.
Independent Researcher in Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation.
Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Hacettepe University Institute of Health Science, Ankara, Turkey.
Department of Language and Speech Therapy, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Health Science, Sivas, Turkey.



The psychosocial factors that may affect the prognosis of patients with low back pain are generally disregarded. The StarT Back Screening Tool can help clinicians to analyze prognostic indicators and the risk associated with outcome by examining physical and psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the StarT Back Screening Tool, including cross-cultural adaptation, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity.


In this study, 120 patients with non-specific low back pain were included. The Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and the StarT Back Screening Tool were administered. One week after the initial testing, the same examiner repeated the tests.


The mean age of the patients who participated in the study was 35.54±12.45 years. Cronbach's alpha coefficients in the analysis of scale reliability were 0.747 for the overall scale and 0.738 for the psychosocial subscale. The test-retest reliability of StarT Back Screening Tool (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.90-0.93) was found to be excellent. Pearson correlation coefficients for the correlations between the overall StarT Back Screening Tool and the other measures were very good (r=0.678; p<0.001) for the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, good (r=0.473; p<0.001) for the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, good (r=0.541; p<0.001) for the Oswestry Disability Index, and moderate (r=0.336; p<0.001) for the Beck Depression Inventory.


The Turkish version of the StarT Screening Tool for non-specific back pain was determined to be valid and reliable. A good assessment of both physical and psychosocial factors in symptomatic patients can help clinicians make a thorough prognosis.

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