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Anatol J Cardiol. 2019 Mar;21(4):214-221. doi: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2019.49376.

Comprehensive echocardiographic imaging of atrioventricular valves in children with atrioventricular septal defect: Accuracy of 2D and 3D imaging and reasons for disagreement.

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ChildrenĀ“s Heart Centre, Skane University Hospital; Lund-Sweden.
Department of Health Services, University of Washington Seattle; Washington-USA.



To compare the accuracy and reasons for disagreement of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography findings in the assessment of the atrioventricular valve complex in patients with atrioventricular septal defect.


A total of 20 children (mean age 8 months) with atrioventricular septal defect were enrolled prospectively into this study. The accuracy of and the reasons for disagreement in the assessment of the atrioventricular valve features were analyzed between 2D and 3D echocardiography and surgical findings.


We found that in assessing the Rastelli type and the extension of the inferior leaflet into the right ventricle, 3D echocardiography was more accurate compared to 2D echocardiography. In all other features, 2D and 3D echocardiography showed similar accuracy. A significant reason for inaccuracy by both echo modalities was that the technique itself could not visualize the feature, although the image quality was considered to be adequate. In most cases, where it was not possible to visualize the atrioventricular feature by 2D, it was possible by 3D, and vice versa.


The accuracy of 2D and 3D echocardiography and understanding the potential reasons for disagreements in assessing the atrioventricular valve complex with 2D and 3D can guide the use of those two techniques when combining them in the clinical practice.

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