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Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2019 Jan;25(1):29-33. doi: 10.5505/tjtes.2018.16243.

Incidence, etiology, and patterns of maxillofacial traumas in Syrian patients in Hatay, Turkey: A 3 year retrospective study.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, Mustafa Kemal University Faculty of Medicine, Hatay-Turkey.



This study aimed to assess the demographics, clinical features, and treatment costs of maxillofacial trauma cases referred to our hospital during the Syrian civil war.


The study included 80 cases of maxillofacial trauma. Patients with additional pathologies were excluded from the study. The patients were examined with respect to their demographics and clinical characteristics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), treatments applied, costs, and outcomes.


A total of 80 patients included 76 (95%) males and 4 (5%) females, with the mean age of 29.05±9.97 years (range, 13-56 years), and 72 (90%) of them were Syrians injured in the war. The most common mechanism of trauma was the firearms injury in 72 (90%) cases, and the most frequently seen lesion was the mandible fracture (n=48, 60%). The ISS of all the patients was <16, as a severe trauma score. The GCS value was 8-12 in 4 (5%) patients, and 15 in 76 (95%). The most common treatment applied were the reduction and fixation, and graft-flap following fracture (n=12, 15%). The mean duration of hospitalization was 15.27±13.0 days (range, 2-60 days). All patients were discharged from hospital. The mean cost per case was calculated as 5,581.55±56.3 Turkish Lira (range, 772-18,697 TL) or 1,251.24±14.2 US Dollars (US$173-4,192). There was a significant correlation between the costs and the length of hospitalization (p<0.001, r=+0.729) and trauma scores (p=0.004, r=-0.616).


Firearms-injured young males with mandible fractures were the most common group of maxillofacial trauma cases seen during the Syrian war. The intensity of patients and the cost of the hospital stay have significantly increased because of the ongoing conflict in the neighboring country of Syria.

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