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Agri. 2019 Jan;31(1):15-22. doi: 10.5505/agri.2018.25349.

Cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Revised Nonverbal Pain Scale.

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Department of General Surgery Intensive Care, Adana City Hospital, Adana, Turkey.



In this study, we aimed to adapt the Revised Nonverbal Pain Scale (NVPS-R) into Turkish, and to test reliability and validity of the scale.


A total of 74 patients who were admitted to eight intensive care units in two hospitals between May 2016 and August 2017 were included in this study. All patients were over 18 years old, mechanically ventilated, and sedated. The data were obtained 1 min before, during and 20 min after the aspiration using the NVPS-R-TR and Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT).


Language, content, construct validity and reliability analyses were performed for the reliability and validity of the scale. Factor loadings in explanatory factor analysis were sufficient (0.790-0.900), and the fit indices of the scale were acceptable values in confirmatory factor analysis (x2/SD: 2.414, RMSEA: 0.066, CFI: 0.910, SRMR: 0.073, GFI: 0. 950 and AGFI: 0.930). After internal consistency analyses of the scale, the item-total correlation was sufficient (0.604-0.794), and Cronbach's alpha score was 0.776.


NVPS-R-TR is a reliable and a valid measuring tool for the pain evaluation of sedated adults who are under mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit.

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