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Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2018 Dec;46(8):675-682. doi: 10.5543/tkda.2017.10.5543/tkda.2018.06025.

Arrhythmia during diagnostic cardiac catheterization in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease.

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Department of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Health Sciences, İstanbul Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey.



Diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization procedures for congenital heart diseases (CHD) are becoming increasingly more popular, and arrhythmia is a well-known complication. This study was an evaluation of the incidence and causative agents of arrhythmia and the subsequent treatment strategies applied during cardiac catheterization.


The catheterization data of all of the patients who underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization for CHD between January 2012 and 2018 at a single center were examined retrospectively.


A total of 1316 children underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization due to CHD. The median age and body weight was 18 months (6 days-21 years) and 9.9 kg (2.2-135 kg), respectively. Patients with ventricular septal defect (281 patients) and those with tetralogy of Fallot (257 patients) represented 2 major groups of the study population. In 93 (7%) patients, arrhythmia developed during cardiac catheterization. Among them, there were 58 (62%) cases of bradyarrhythmia and 35 (38%) cases of tachyarrhythmia. Arrhythmia was classified as low, high, or major, according to the adverse event severity score; the rates were 2.7%, 4.3%, and 1.2%, respectively. In 36 (39%) patients, there was no need for therapy, whereas 57 (61%) required treatment to eliminate the arrhythmia. Treatment modalities included catheter manipulation in 15, pharmacological therapy in 24, and cardioversion in 3 patients. Eleven patients required cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Temporary pacemaker implantation was required in 2 patients, while 2 others underwent permanent pacemaker implantation secondary to catheterization-related arrhythmia. There were no cases of mortality secondary to catheterization-related arrhythmia.


Diagnostic cardiac catheterization in CHD may result in various types of cardiac arrhythmias. The proper management of arrhythmias may reduce morbidity and mortality related to cardiac catheterization.

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