Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Physiol Rev. 2008 Oct;88(4):1379-406. doi: 10.1152/physrev.90100.2007.

Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6.

Author information

1
The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism at Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. bkp@rh.dk

Abstract

Skeletal muscle has recently been identified as an endocrine organ. It has, therefore, been suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert paracrine, autocrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." Recent research demonstrates that skeletal muscles can produce and express cytokines belonging to distinctly different families. However, the first identified and most studied myokine is the gp130 receptor cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6 was discovered as a myokine because of the observation that it increases up to 100-fold in the circulation during physical exercise. Identification of IL-6 production by skeletal muscle during physical activity generated renewed interest in the metabolic role of IL-6 because it created a paradox. On one hand, IL-6 is markedly produced and released in the postexercise period when insulin action is enhanced but, on the other hand, IL-6 has been associated with obesity and reduced insulin action. This review focuses on the myokine IL-6, its regulation by exercise, its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, and its role in metabolism in both health and disease.

PMID:
18923185
DOI:
10.1152/physrev.90100.2007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center