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J Environ Manage. 2019 Jul 15;242:106-113. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.075. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Biodegradation of tannery dye effluent using Fenton's reagent and bacterial consortium: A biocalorimetric investigation.

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Chemical Engineering Department, Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai, 600020, India.
Environmental Technology Division, Central Leather Research Institute(CLRI), Adyar, Chennai, 600020, India.
Chemical Engineering Department, Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai, 600020, India. Electronic address:


The impact caused by dye effluent discharge on the environment is well known. The study explores a hybrid method of combining Fenton oxidation with biological treatment by a defined bacterial consortium for the biodegradation of an effluent containing toxic azo dye (acid blue 113). In actual treatment process, the fluctuation in toxic load and presence of other dyeing chemical inhibits the activity of the bacterial consortium. An effective pre-treatment of effluent would ensure the optimal degradation irrespective of its initial load. The pre-treatment of dye effluent with Fenton (H2O2 & Fe2+), considerably reduced the dye concentration by 40% and a maximum dye degradation of 85% (i.e., 45% by biodegradation) was achieved in shake flask. The biodegradation process was investigated in a bioreaction calorimeter (BioRc1e), the heat profile, bioenergetics data along with CER (Carbon dioxide emission rate) and OUR (Oxygen uptake rate) provided vital information for the effective commercial scale up. Enhanced degradation of up to 97% was achieved in BioRc1, the CER and OUR profile follows the power-time profile alluding that the heat generated is the resultant effect of bacterial metabolic activity. In real dye bath effluent the Fenton pre-oxidized biodegradation reaction showed a degradation efficacy of 89.5% and considerable COD reduction of 93.7%. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed a better bacterial cell proliferation in pre-treated experiment and gas chromatography and mass spectrum analysis were used for prediction of metabolites. The unique combination of Fenton and the microbial consortia is a competitive technology for industrial effluent treatment processes.


Bacterial consortium; Biocalorimeter; Dye effluent treatment; FACS; Fenton pre-treatment

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