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J Food Sci. 2019 May;84(5):1068-1077. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14595. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Enhancement of the Textural and Gel Properties of Frankfurters by Adding Thermo-reversible or Thermo-irreversible Curdlan Gels.

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College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural Univ., Harbin, 150030, Heilongjiang, China.
College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu, China.


The influence of different addition levels (0.1% to 0.5%) of thermo-reversible curdlan gels (TRC) and thermo-irreversible curdlan gels (TIRC) on the physicochemical and textural characteristics of frankfurters, as well as dynamic rheological properties of meat batters, was investigated. Increased percentages of TRC and TIRC were associated with lower cooking loss and quicker relaxation times, as well as superior emulsion stability, and higher L* -values and b* -values of frankfurters (P < 0.05). Moreover, with equal curdlan concentrations from 0.3% to 0.5%, TRC showed higher hardness and chewiness values than those with added TIRC (P < 0.05), but the gumminess, springiness, and resilience values were almost the same between each treatment (P > 0.05). The textural profile results were in strong agreement with the rheological data. Principal component analysis revealed that certain quality attributes were affected differently by the inclusion levels of TRC and TIRC. Additionally, the distinctive mechanism of the formation of the complex meat protein network by TRC or TIRC was also clarified and verified via scanning electron microscopy analysis. Further studies will investigate the molecular interactions of meat proteins with these two types of curdlan gels as a function of addition levels. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Curdlan can form two different types of gels mainly depending on heating temperature, designated as thermo-reversible curdlan gels (TRC) and thermo-irreversible curdlan gels (TIRC), respectively. The addition of these two gels could improve the textural and gel properties of frankfurters, as well as improve the rheological profiles of meat batters. Each gel type invokes a different mechanism of influence on the formation of the complex meat protein network. Results indicate that TRC (mainly as an effective gelling agent) and TIRC (mainly as a potential fat-mimetic) can provide distinctive frankfurter formulations catered to the requirements preferred by different consumers.


Frankfurters; curdlan; microstructure; rheological properties; textural properties; thermo-irreversible; thermo-reversible

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