Send to

Choose Destination
Sensors (Basel). 2018 Oct 15;18(10). pii: E3463. doi: 10.3390/s18103463.

Nondestructive Inspection of Reinforced Concrete Utility Poles with ISOMAP and Random Forest.

Author information

University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Korea.
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), 245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Korea.
Smart C&S Co., Ltd., Yongsan-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Korea.


Reinforced concrete poles are very popular in transmission lines due to their economic efficiency. However, these poles have structural safety issues in their service terms that are caused by cracks, corrosion, deterioration, and short-circuiting of internal reinforcing steel wires. Therefore, they must be periodically inspected to evaluate their structural safety. There are many methods of performing external inspection after installation at an actual site. However, on-site nondestructive safety inspection of steel reinforcement wires inside poles is very difficult. In this study, we developed an application that classifies the magnetic field signals of multiple channels, as measured from the actual poles. Initially, the signal data were gathered by inserting sensors into the poles, and these data were then used to learn the patterns of safe and damaged features. These features were then processed with the isometric feature mapping (ISOMAP) dimensionality reduction algorithm. Subsequently, the resulting reduced data were processed with a random forest classification algorithm. The proposed method could elucidate whether the internal wires of the poles were broken or not according to actual sensor data. This method can be applied for evaluating the structural integrity of concrete poles in combination with portable devices for signal measurement (under development).


ISOMAP; classification; dimensionality reduction; machine learning; nondestructive inspection; random forest

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center