Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2018 May 14;13(5):e0196555. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196555. eCollection 2018.

The microbial killing capacity of aqueous and gaseous ozone on different surfaces contaminated with dairy cattle manure.

Author information

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
Department of Animal Medicine, Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor-Toukh, Kalyobiya, Egypt.


A high reactivity and leaving no harmful residues make ozone an effective disinfectant for farm hygiene and biosecurity. Our objectives were therefore to (1) characterize the killing capacity of aqueous and gaseous ozone at different operational conditions on dairy cattle manure-based pathogens (MBP) contaminated different surfaces (plastic, metal, nylon, rubber, and wood); (2) determine the effect of microbial load on the killing capacity of aqueous ozone. In a crossover design, 14 strips of each material were randomly assigned into 3 groups, treatment (n = 6), positive-control (n = 6), and negative-control (n = 2). The strips were soaked in dairy cattle manure with an inoculum level of 107-108 for 60 minutes. The treatment strips were exposed to aqueous ozone of 2, 4, and 9 ppm and gaseous ozone of 1and 9 ppm for 2, 4, and 8 minutes exposure. 3M™ Petrifilm™ rapid aerobic count plate and plate reader were used for bacterial culture. On smooth surfaces, plastic and metal, aqueous ozone at 4 ppm reduced MBP to a safe level (≥5-log10) within 2 minutes (6.1 and 5.1-log10, respectively). However, gaseous ozone at 9 ppm for 4 minutes inactivated 3.3-log10 of MBP. Aqueous ozone of 9 ppm is sufficient to reduce MBP to a safe level, 6.0 and 5.4- log10, on nylon and rubber surfaces within 2 and 8 minutes, respectively. On complex surfaces, wood, both aqueous and gaseous ozone at up to 9 ppm were unable to reduce MBP to a safe level (3.6 and 0.8-log10, respectively). The bacterial load was a strong predictor for reduction in MBP (P<0.0001, R2 = 0.72). We conclude that aqueous ozone of 4 and 9 ppm for 2 minutes may provide an efficient method to reduce MBP to a safe level on smooth and moderately rough surfaces, respectively. However, ozone alone may not an adequate means of controlling MBP on complex surfaces.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center