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Planta. 2018 Aug;248(2):409-421. doi: 10.1007/s00425-018-2913-y. Epub 2018 May 11.

Photoinactivation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit plants by cationic porphyrins.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry and QOPNA, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal.
2
Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal.
3
Department of Chemistry and QOPNA, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal. gneves@ua.pt.
4
Associação Portuguesa de Kiwicultores, 4520-249, Santa Maria da Feira, Portugal.
5
Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal. aalmeida@ua.pt.

Abstract

The studied cationic porphyrins formulation allows an effective photoinactivation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit leaves under sunlight irradiation, without damaging the plant. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium responsible for canker on kiwifruit plant. Over the last decade, this bacterium dramatically affected the production of this fruit worldwide, causing significant economic losses. In general, Psa control consists in the application of copper which are toxic and persist in the environment. The application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative to inactivate Psa has already been demonstrated in recent studies that showed a 4 log Psa reduction using the cationic porphyrin Tetra-Py+-Me as photosensitizer (PS) and 3 consecutive cycles of treatment with a light irradiance of 150 mW cm-2. The present work aimed to evaluate the photodynamic efficiency of a new formulation constituted with five cationic porphyrins as PS in Psa inactivation. This new formulation was prepared to have as main component the tri-cationic porphyrin which is considered one of the most efficient photosensitizers in the photoinactivation of microorganisms. The in vitro study with a PS concentration of 5.0 µM and low irradiance, showed a 7.4 log photoinactivation after 60 min. Posteriorly, several assays were performed with the PS at 50 µM on kiwifruit leaves (ex vivo), under different conditions of light and inoculation. The ex vivo assays with artificially contaminated leaves showed a 2.8 and 4.5 log inactivation with low irradiance and sunlight, respectively, after 90 min. After a second treatment with sunlight, a 6.2 log inactivation was achieved. The photoinactivation on naturally contaminated leaves was about 2.3 log after 90 min sunlight irradiation. Ten consecutive cycles of phototreatment in sub-lethal conditions showed that Psa does not develop resistance, nor recover viability. The results suggest that aPDT can be an alternative to the current methods used to control Psa, since it was possible to inactivate this bacterium under sunlight, without damaging the leaves.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy; Cationic porphyrins; Kiwi; Pseudomonas syringae; Resistance development

PMID:
29752536
DOI:
10.1007/s00425-018-2913-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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