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Front Microbiol. 2017 May 2;8:761. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00761. eCollection 2017.

Proline-Based Cyclic Dipeptides from Korean Fermented Vegetable Kimchi and from Leuconostoc mesenteroides LBP-K06 Have Activities against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

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1
Laboratory of Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National UniversitySeoul, South Korea.

Abstract

Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides play a prominent role as functional starters and predominant isolates in the production of various types of antimicrobial compound-containing fermented foods, especially including kimchi. In the case of the bioactive cyclic dipeptides, their racemic diastereomers inhibitory to bacteria and fungi have been suggested to come solely from Lactobacillus spp. of these strains. We previously demonstrated the antifungal and antiviral activities of proline-based cyclic dipeptides, which were fractionated from culture filtrates of Lb. plantarum LBP-K10 originated from kimchi. However, cyclic dipeptides have not been identified in the filtrates, either from cultures or fermented subject matter, driven by Ln. mesenteroides, which have been widely used as starter cultures for kimchi fermentation. Most importantly, the experimental verification of cyclic dipeptide-content changes during kimchi fermentation have also not been elucidated. Herein, the antibacterial fractions, including cyclo(Leu-Pro) and cyclo(Phe-Pro), from Ln. mesenteroides LBP-K06 culture filtrates, which exhibited a typical chromatographic retention behavior (tR), were identified by using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on this finding, the proline-based cyclic dipeptides, including cyclo(Ser-Pro), cyclo(Tyr-Pro), and cyclo(Leu-Pro), were additionally identified in the filtrates only when fermenting Chinese cabbage produced with Ln. mesenteroides LBP-K06 starter cultures. The detection and isolation of cyclic dipeptides solely in controlled fermented cabbage were conducted under the control of fermentation-process parameters concomitantly with strong CDP selectivity by using a two-consecutive-purification strategy. Interestingly, cyclic dipeptides in the filtrates, when using this strain as a starter, increased with fermentation time. However, no cyclic dipeptides were observed in the filtrates of other fermented products, including other types of kimchi and fermented materials of plant and animal origin. This is the first report to conclusively demonstrate evidence for the existence of antimicrobial cyclic dipeptides produced by Ln. mesenteroides in kimchi. Through filtrates from lactic acid bacterial cultures and from fermented foods, we have also proved a method of combining chromatographic fractionation and mass spectrometry-based analysis for screening cyclic dipeptide profiling, which may allow evaluation of the fermented dairy foods from a new perspective.

KEYWORDS:

Korean fermented foods; Leuconostoc mesenteroides LBP-K06; cyclic dipeptides; kimchi; lactic acid bacteria

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