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BMC Plant Biol. 2016 Oct 26;16(1):233.

Flavonoids and darkness lower PCD in senescing Vitis vinifera suspension cell cultures.

Author information

1
Department of Agricultural, Food, Animal and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, via delle Scienze, 91, 33100, Udine, Italy.
2
Department of Agricultural, Food, Animal and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, via delle Scienze, 91, 33100, Udine, Italy. enrico.braidot@uniud.it.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Senescence is a key developmental process occurring during the life cycle of plants that can be induced also by environmental conditions, such as starvation and/or darkness. During senescence, strict control of genes regulates ordered degradation and dismantling events, the most remarkable of which are genetically programmed cell death (PCD) and, in most cases, an upregulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in the presence of light. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play multiple essential roles in development, reproduction and defence of plants, partly due to their well-known antioxidant properties, which could affect also the same cell death machinery. To understand further the effect of endogenously-produced flavonoids and their interplay with different environment (light or dark) conditions, two portions (red and green) of a senescing grapevine callus were used to obtain suspension cell cultures. Red Suspension cell Cultures (RSC) and Green Suspension cell Cultures (GSC) were finally grown under either dark or light conditions for 6 days.

RESULTS:

Darkness enhanced cell death (mainly necrosis) in suspension cell culture, when compared to those grown under light condition. Furthermore, RSC with high flavonoid content showed a higher viability compared to GSC and were more protected toward PCD, in accordance to their high content in flavonoids, which might quench ROS, thus limiting the relative signalling cascade. Conversely, PCD was mainly occurring in GSC and further increased by light, as it was shown by cytochrome c release and TUNEL assays.

CONCLUSIONS:

Endogenous flavonoids were shown to be good candidates for exploiting an efficient protection against oxidative stress and PCD induction. Light seemed to be an important environmental factor able to induce PCD, especially in GSC, which lacking of flavonoids were not capable of preventing oxidative damage and signalling leading to senescence.

KEYWORDS:

Cell cultures; Flavonoids; PCD; Senescence; Vitis vinifera

PMID:
27782806
PMCID:
PMC5080730
DOI:
10.1186/s12870-016-0917-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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