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J Patient Saf. 2016 Jun 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparative Safety, Efficiency, and Nursing Preference Among 3 Methods for Intravenous Push Medication Preparation: A Randomized Crossover Simulation Study.

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From the *Visante Inc, St. Paul, Minnesota; and †Center for Medication Safety Advancement, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, Fishers, Indiana.



The aim of this study was to compare total time for drug preparation, associated errors, and nurses' preferences among 3 different intravenous (IV) push medication methods.


A randomized crossover simulation design was used to compare total time for drug preparation and incidence of medication preparation errors between BD Simplist (BDS), Carpuject (CJ), and traditional vial-and-syringe process (TVSP). Three medication preparation areas were created to mimic a hospital setting. Twenty-four critical care nurses were asked to prepare an IV dose of diphenhydramine, ketorolac, and morphine in random order using BDS, CJ, and TVSP, also in random order. Total time for the preparation of each drug was measured. Medication preparation errors were noted. At the start of the study, nurses were surveyed about their stress levels regarding aspects of IV push medications. At completion, nurses were asked to rank order from the most to the least preferred administration method.


Mean time in seconds for drug preparation was significantly shorter (P < 0.004) with BDS (28.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23.3-34.2) and CJ (28.3; 95% CI, 23.1-33.5) compared with TSVP (65.8; 95% CI, 57.7-73.9). The time difference between BDS and CJ was not statistically significant. Medication preparation errors were significantly reduced with BDS compared with both CJ and TVSP (1.4% versus 77.8% versus 73.6%; P < 0.001). The BDS was ranked by nurses as the most preferred method.


The BD Simplist system for IV push medications may offer nurses an opportunity to reduce steps and reduce errors during medication preparation.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

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