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J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2015 Mar-Apr;25(2):263-72. doi: 10.1111/vec.12298.

Retrospective evaluation of risk factors and outcome predictors in cats with diabetic ketoacidosis (1997-2007): 93 cases.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Studies, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine risk factors and outcome predictors in cats with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

DESIGN:

Retrospective study. Inclusion in the DKA group required blood glucose concentration > 13.9 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), venous pH < 7.35, and urine or serum acetoacetate concentration greater than 1.5 mmol/L (15 mg/dL). Signalment and weight were recorded in all cats with uncomplicated diabetes mellitus (DM) without DKA and in all other nondiabetic cats examined during the study period. Clinicopathologic variables, concurrent disorders, and initial insulin intravenous (IV) continuous-rate infusion (CRI) concentration of 1.1 or 2.2 U/kg/240 mL bag of 0.9% NaCl, were examined for a possible association with outcome.

SETTING:

University teaching hospital.

ANIMALS:

Ninety-three cats with DKA, 682 cats with uncomplicated DM, and 16,926 cats without DM or DKA.

INTERVENTIONS:

None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Cats with DKA were younger (median age 9.4 years; range, 1-17.9 years) than cats with uncomplicated DM (median 11.6 years; range 0.7-19.5 years, P < 0.0003). Siamese cats were overrepresented in the DKA group compared to the uncomplicated DM or nondiabetic group (P = 0.038 and P = 0.01, respectively). Poor outcome (defined as death due to disease or by euthanasia) in 36 cats with DKA (39%) was associated with increased initial creatinine, BUN, total serum magnesium, and total bilirubin concentrations (P = 0.007, P = 0.005, P = 0.03, P = 0.03, respectively). Cats treated with a higher concentration of insulin were less likely to have a poor outcome compared to cats treated with a lower concentration of insulin (odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.02-1.16, P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Cats with DKA are more likely to be Siamese than cats with uncomplicated DM. Poor outcome of cats with DKA is associated with increased initial creatinine, BUN, total magnesium, and total bilirubin concentrations. Good outcome was associated with a higher concentration of IV insulin CRI.

KEYWORDS:

DKA; feline diabetes; metabolic complications; outcome

PMID:
25845506
DOI:
10.1111/vec.12298
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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