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Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 10;4:6312. doi: 10.1038/srep06312.

Anorectal autotransplantation in a canine model: the first successful report in the short term with the non-laparotomy approach.

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1] Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan [2].
1] Department of Colorectal Surgery, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan [2].
Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
Saitama Shinkaibashi Clinic, Saitama, Japan.
Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University.
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.


Colostomy is conventional treatment for anal dysfunction. Recently, a few trials of anorectal transplantation in animals have been published as a potential alternative to colostomies; however, further development of this technique is required. In this study, we utilized a canine model of anorectal transplantation, evaluated the patency of our microsurgical anastomoses, and assessed the perfusion of the transplanted anus. We designed a canine anorectal transplantation model, wherein anorectal autotransplantation was performed in four healthy beagle dogs by anastomoses of the lower rectum, the bilateral pudendal arteries (PAs) and veins (PVs), and pudendal nerves (PNs). Postoperative graft perfusion was measured by indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and histological examination. The length of the anorectal graft including perianal skin, anal sphincter muscle, bilateral PAs, PVs, and PNs was 4.9 ± 0.3 cm. All diameters of the PAs, PVs, and PNs were large enough to be microscopically anastomosed. Both ICG angiography and histological examination demonstrated good graft perfusion, except for one case that lead to venous congestion. These results show that anastomosis of the bilateral PAs, PVs, and PNs is required for anorectal transplantation. This is the first successful report of canine anorectal autotransplantation.

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