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Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Feb;25(1):51-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1386643. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

Ulcerative ileitis after proctocolectomy in children: a complication of ulcerative colitis or a disease in itself after ileoanal pullthrough?

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Department of Pediatric Surgery, Universitary Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain.
Pediatric Gastroenterology Service, Universitary Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain.


Ulcerative ileitis (UI) after restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) and ileoanal pullthrough procedure (IAPP) is a rare condition described as inflammation of the terminal ileum proximal to the anastomosis. It is mostly observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) and is designated as prepouch ileitis; sometimes with pouchitis, but not necessarily all the time. Its incidence in adults is less than 5%, but the information in children is limited. Pathogenesis is unknown, it has been considered as a disease by itself, independently on the underlying disease. It involves additional morbidity and impacts negatively on quality of life because there is no effective treatment so far. This study aims to review the cases of UI in our institution and to summarize their clinical features and management. A descriptive retrospective study of UI patients between 1990 and 2013 was conducted. Children with RPC and IAPP with clinical and pathological diagnosis of UI were included. Sociodemographic and clinical data, diagnostic, and therapeutic procedures were collected through medical records. UI was diagnosed in eight patients (six males) after RCP; four had UC, two had total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), and two had complex anorectal malformations (one cloacal exstrophy and one omphalopagus twin with bladder exstrophy). Different surgical techniques were used in each case: UC patients underwent IAPP, 50% with J-reservoir and 50% without it; posterior sagittal pullthrough was performed in those with anorectal malformations; one Soave and one Swenson procedure in those with TCA. In summary, three patients had reservoir and five did not. The median age at the IAPP and ostomy closure was 6 years (range 2 months-8 years) and 7 years (range 6 months-9 years), respectively. UI was found after a median of 23 months (range 1-48 months), all of them after digestive tract continuity was reestablished. The leading symptom was lower GI or gastrointestinal, both of them bleeding with abdominal pain, followed by abdominopelvic abscesses and malabsorption with weight loss. Pathology showed nonspecific inflammatory changes. Treatment included antibiotics, corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive agents with variable response, requiring a new ileostomy in five cases. Ileitis disappeared after diversion. In our experience, UI after colectomy is not an exclusive feature of UC as has been previously described. Although it appears with pouchitis, the presence of a reservoir is not a must, suggesting that this is a different entity. No medical treatment has been really effective in our patients and diversion above this level stopped the process. Further studies on its pathogenesis and treatment strategies are necessary.

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