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Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2014 May;12(5):557-64. doi: 10.1586/14779072.2014.909728. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Low-flow mediated constriction: the yin to FMD's yang?

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Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK.


Given the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), early detection is crucial. Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors relate to future CVD, the predictive value of these risk factors can be relatively limited. Contemporary scientific attention has focused on alternative direct measures of arterial function. Based on the ability of the endothelium to acutely dilate in response to an increase in flow, 'flow mediated dilation' (FMD) was introduced approximately 20 years ago and is now an established non-invasive index of endothelial function predictive of future cardiovascular events. Recently, 'low-flow mediated constriction' (L-FMC) has been proposed as a complementary addition to FMD. The technique is based on the constrictor response to decreased flow and is claimed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of FMD. The aim of this review is to examine literature pertaining to this novel technique and to provide insight into the potential use of L-FMC in future research.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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