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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014 Sep;102(9):3112-21. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.34971. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Immature muscular tissue differentiation into bone-like tissue by bone morphogenetic proteins in vitro, with ossification potential in vivo.

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Department of Dental Materials Science, Aichi Gakuin University School of Dentistry, Nagoya, Japan.


The objective of this study was to induce bone formation from immature muscular tissue (IMT) in vitro, using bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as a cytokine source and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffold. In addition, cultured IMTs were implanted subcutaneously into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to determine their in vivo ossification potential. BMPs, extracted from bovine cortical bones, were applied to embryonic SD rat IMT cultures, before 2 weeks culture on ePTFE scaffolds. Osteoblast-like cells and osteoid tissues were partially identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining 2 weeks after culture. Collagen type I (Col-I), osteopontin (OP), and osteocalcin (OC) were detected in the osteoid tissues by immunohistochemical staining. OC gene expression remained low, but OP and Col-I were upregulated during the culture period. In vivo implanted IMTs showed slight radiopacity 1 week after implantation and strong radiopacity 2 and 3 weeks after implantation. One week after implantation, migration of numerous capillaries was observed and ossification was detected after 2 weeks by histological observation. These results suggest that IMTs are able to differentiate into bone-like tissue in vitro, with an ossification potential after implantation in vivo.


bone morphogenetic proteins; ePTFE; immature muscular tissue; induced bone-like tissue; ossification potential

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