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J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2012 Apr;62(4):398-407.

Volatile organic compound emissions from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study of Mumbai, India.

Author information

1
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Kolkata Zonal Centre, Council of Scientific and Industrial and Research, Kolkata, India. ds_majumndar@neeri.res.in

Abstract

Improper solid waste management leads to aesthetic and environmental problems. Emission ofvolatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the problems from uncontrolled dumpsite. VOCs are well known to be hazardous to human health and many of them are known or potential carcinogens. They also contribute to ozone formation at ground level and climate change as well. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of VOCs emitting from two municipal waste (MSW) disposal sites in Mumbai, India, namely Deonar and Malad, are presented in this paper. Air at dumpsites was sampled and analyzed on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-17 compendium method for analysis of toxic compounds. As many as 64 VOCs were qualitatively identified, among which 13 are listed under hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Study of environmental distribution of a few major VOCs indicates that although air is the principal compartment of residence, they also get considerably partitioned in soil and vegetation. The CO2 equivalent of target VOCs from the landfills in Malad and Deonar shows that the total yearly emissions are 7.89E+03 and 8.08E+02 kg, respectively. The total per hour ozone production from major VOCs was found to be 5.34E-01 ppb in Deonar and 9.55E-02 ppb in Malad. The total carcinogenic risk for the workers in the dumpsite considering all target HAPs are calculated to be 275 persons in 1 million in Deonar and 139 persons in 1 million in Malad.

PMID:
22616282
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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