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J Neurotrauma. 2009 Nov;26(11):1987-97. doi: 10.1089/neu.2008.0863.

Human amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cell treatment alleviates traumatic brain injury-induced axonal degeneration.

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Department of Applied Neurobiology, Division of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA.


To identify a viable cell source with potential neuroprotective effects, we studied amnion-derived multipotent progenitor (AMP) cells in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). AMP cells were labeled with fluorescent dye PKH26 and injected in rats immediately following right hemispheric PBBI or sham PBBI surgery by ipsilateral i.c.v. administration. At 2 weeks post-injury, severe necrosis developed along the PBBI tract and axonal degeneration was prominent along the corpus callosum (cc) and in the ipsilateral thalamus. Injected AMP cells first entered the subventricular zone (SVZ) in both sham and PBBI rats. Further AMP cell migration along the cc only occurred in PBBI animals. No significant difference in injury volume was observed across all treatment groups. In contrast, treatment with AMP cells significantly attenuated axonal degeneration in both the thalamus and the cc. Interestingly, PKH26-labeled AMP cells were detected only in the SVZ and the cc (in parallel with the axonal degeneration), but not in the thalamus. None of the labeled AMP cells appeared to express neural differentiation, as evidenced by the lack of double labeling with nestin, S-100, GFAP, and MAP-2 immunostaining. In conclusion, AMP cell migration was specifically induced by PBBI and requires SVZ homing, yet the neuroprotective effect of intracerebral ventrical treatment using AMP cells was not limited to the area where the cells were present. This suggests that the attenuation of the secondary brain injury following PBBI was likely to be mediated by mechanisms other than cell replacement, possibly through delivery or sustained secretion of neurotrophic factors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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