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CJEM. 2008 Jan;10(1):44-50.

Daily encounter cards facilitate competency-based feedback while leniency bias persists.

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Department of Medicine and the Wilson Centre for Research in Education, University of Toronto, and Department of Emergency Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.



We sought to determine if a novel competency-based daily encounter card (DEC) that was designed to minimize leniency bias and maximize independent competency assessments could address the limitations of existing feedback mechanisms when applied to an emergency medicine rotation.


Learners in 2 tertiary academic emergency departments (EDs) presented a DEC to their teachers after each shift. DECs included dichotomous categorical rating scales (i.e., "needs attention" or "area of strength") for each of the 7 CanMEDS roles or competencies and an overall global rating scale. Teachers were instructed to choose which of the 7 competencies they wished to evaluate on each shift. Results were analyzed using both staff and resident as the units of analysis.


Fifty-four learners submitted a total of 801 DECs that were then completed by 43 different teachers over 28 months. Teachers' patterns of selecting CanMEDS competencies to assess did not differ between the 2 sites. Teachers selected an average of 3 roles per DEC (range 0-7). Only 1.3% were rated as "needs further attention." The frequency with which each competency was selected ranged from 25% (Health Advocate) to 85% (Medical Expert).


Teachers chose to direct feedback toward a breadth of competencies. They provided feedback on all 7 CanMEDS roles in the ED, yet demonstrated a marked leniency bias.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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