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J Biol Chem. 1975 Feb 10;250(3):835-42.

Role of metal ions in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. A study of the metal-water interaction by nuclear relaxation rate measurements on water protons.


The binding of metal to alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli and the binding of water and orthophosphate to the Me-2+-enzyme binary complex have been examined by water proton relaxation rate (PRR) measurements. Titration of the three paramagnetic metals, Mn2+, Cu2+, and Co2+, into apoalkaline phosphatase and the titrations of apoenzyme into metal have been carried out. Analysis of the spin-lattice relaxation rates for these titrations and of Scatchard binding curves derived from these results, as well as EPR data, show four tight manganese sites, between two and three tight copper sites, or four cobalt sites per enzyme dimer of molecular weight 80,000. The multiple sites for each metal are indistinguishable by these magnetic resonance techniques. Both the spin-lattice- and spin-spin-relaxation rates exhibit a negative temperature coefficient, showing that these processes are not exchange-limited. From a frequency dependence study of T-1 and from the T-1:T-2 ratio measured at 220 MHz, correlation times from the water-enzyme complexes have been estimated. For H20-Mn-2+-alkaline phosphatase, gamma c equals 1.55 times 10-9 s; for H20-Cu-2+ -alkaline phosphatase, gamma c equals 1.82 times 10-s; and for the cobalt complex, gamma c equals 1.0 times 10-12 s at 4 degrees. Assuming 1 water molecule bound per metal site, these correlation times correspond to the following water-metal distances: gamma (A) is 4.0 A for Mn-2+-H20, 3.4 A for Cu-2+-H20, and 2.8 A for Co-2+-H20. Thus, water is shown to bind directly to the metal atoms of alkaline phosphatase. The correlation between the length of the water-metal bond and the relative activity of the various metalloenzymes support the importance of this binding in the monophosphoesterase reaction catalyzed by alkaline phosphatase. Addition of excess orthophosphate to any of the water-metalloenzyme complexes does not displace an exchangeable water molecule from the metal site. The Mn-PO-4 distance which we have reported earlier (Zukin, R.S., Hollis, D.P., and Gray, G.A. (1973) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 53, 238) to be 7.3 A is consistent with this finding and suggests a model in which Pi binds to Mn-2+-alkaline phosphatase through a water bridge.

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