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J Immunol. 2004 Jan 1;172(1):442-8.

Redox-sensing release of human thioredoxin from T lymphocytes with negative feedback loops.

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Department of Biological Responses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.


Thioredoxin (TRX) is released from various types of mammalian cells despite no typical secretory signal sequence. We show here that a redox-active site in TRX is essential for its release from T lymphocytes in response to H2O2 and extracellular TRX regulates its own H2O2-induced release. Human T cell leukemia virus type I-transformed T lymphocytes constitutively release a large amount of TRX. The level of TRX release is augmented upon the addition of H2O2, but suppressed upon the addition of N-acetylcysteine. In the culture supernatant of a Jurkat transfectant expressing the tagged TRX-wild type (WT), the tagged TRX protein is rapidly released at 1 h and kept at a constant level until 6 h after the addition of H2O2. In contrast, another type of transfectant expressing the tagged TRX mutant (C32S/C35S; CS) fails to release the protein. H2O2-induced release of TRX from the transfectant is inhibited by the presence of rTRX-WT in a dose-dependent manner. Preincubation of the transfectant with rTRX-WT for 1 h at 37 degrees C, but not 0 degrees C, results in a significant suppression of the TRX release, reactive oxygen species, and caspase-3 activity induced by H2O2, respectively. Confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis show that extracellular rTRX-WT added to the culture does not obviously enter T lymphocytes until 24 h. These results collectively suggest that the oxidative stress-induced TRX release from T lymphocytes depends on a redox-sensitive event and may be regulated by negative feedback loops using reactive oxygen species-mediated signal transductions.

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