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Atherosclerosis. 2001 Jul;157(1):211-20.

The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype: small dense LDL and lipoprotein remnants in nephrotic range proteinuria.

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1
Renal Unit, Walton Building, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Castle St., Glasgow, G4 0SF, UK. cdeighan@compuserve.com

Abstract

The dyslipidaemia in nephrotic-range proteinuria is believed to contribute to the increased atherogenesis associated with the condition. Excess small dense low density lipoprotein (LDLIII) contributes to this risk. Lipoprotein remnants (RLP) may also be implicated but have not been studied in this population. We measured the plasma concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions (by density gradient ultracentrifugation), RLP (by immunoaffinity gel), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subfractions, post heparin lipases and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity in 27 patients with glomerular disease and albuminuria >2.0g. These were compared with 27 age and sex matched controls. Proteinuric patients had increased LDLIII concentration (patients 182 (84:267) vs. controls 31 (27:62); P<0.0001) with reduced lighter LDLI (36 (24:43) vs 69 (46:101); P<0.0005) and LDLII (124 (79:220) vs 178 (129:236); P<0.04, all mg/dl, median+interquartile range). RLP-cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (RLP-TG) were increased in proteinuric patients (RLP-C 18.9 (11.0:26.9) vs 7.7 (6.0:8.8); P<0.0001, RLP-TG 35.8 (11.8:54.7) vs. 7.2 (4.3:10.0); P<0.0001, all mg/dl). Increased LDLIII and RLP were independent of renal function. VLDL(1) and VLDL(2) concentrations were increased by 258 and 260% (both P<0.0001). CETP activity was increased by 46% (P<0.005). Lipoprotein and hepatic lipase activities did not differ from control values. LDLIII concentration (r(2)=45.7%, P<0.001), RLP-C (r(2)=85.2%, P<0.001) and RLP-TG (r(2)=87.5%, P<0.001) all correlated positively with plasma triglyceride. Moreover, increased LDLIII was associated with both RLP-C (r(2)=31.3%, P<0.002) and RLP-TG (r(2)=33.6%, P<0.002). Excess LDLIII and RLP are present in nephrotic-range proteinuria and add to the spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors present in proteinuric patients. Increases in LDLIII and RLP are closely related to plasma triglyceride. The association between excess RLP and LDLIII suggests that RLP contribute to the increased atherogenicity attributed to the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype.

PMID:
11427223
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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