PMID- 30204775
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20190226
LR  - 20190226
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 13
IP  - 9
DP  - 2018
TI  - Self-esteem in the deaf who have become cochlear implant users as adults.
PG  - e0203680
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0203680 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: Self-esteem is a good predictor of mental health and is crucial for
      well-being and psychological functioning. It is especially important in
      situations where there are potential mental health problems, such as in people
      suffering from hearing loss or total deafness. This study aims to gauge the level
      of self-esteem in adults with hearing problems, in particular those who, in
      adulthood, had received a cochlear implant (CI). The subjects had different onset
      (pre-lingual/post-lingual) and amount (deafness/partial deafness) of hearing
      loss, and their current level of self-esteem was compared to that of the general 
      population. The association of self-esteem with other deafness-related variables 
      (e.g. satisfaction with their CI or whether they also used a hearing aid) and
      sociodemographic factors was also investigated. METHODS: Data were obtained from 
      questionnaires mailed to patients who, when adult, had received a CI. The
      subjects were divided into four subgroups: subjects with pre-lingual deafness,
      post-lingual deafness, pre-lingual partial deafness, and post-lingual partial
      deafness. To evaluate their self-esteem, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES)
      was used. For data on sociodemographic status and information related to deafness
      and CI, we used our own Information Inquiry form. For statistical analysis of the
      results, we compared means (t-test, ANOVA), investigated correlations, and
      applied linear regression. RESULTS: The self-esteem of deaf and partially deaf CI
      users was significantly lower than in the general population, especially for
      post-lingually deafened subjects. The only factor related to deafness and CIs
      that explained self-esteem was self-rated satisfaction with the CI-meaning that
      higher satisfaction was associated with higher self-esteem. The major
      sociodemographic factor that explained self-esteem was marital/partnership status
      (being in a relationship was helpful). Also men had higher self-esteem than
      women. Those with higher levels of education, and those working or studying, had 
      higher self-esteem than those who did not. RSES was found to have a single-factor
      structure. CONCLUSION: Deafness and partial deafness appear to be risk factors
      for lower self-esteem, a finding that rehabilitation, medical, educational, and
      employment communities should be made aware of. Medical intervention in the form 
      of a CI supplies the person with improved hearing, but it is not a panacea: their
      self-esteem is still vulnerable, and reinforcement of self-esteem is an aspect
      that professionals should focus on. Psychological, psycho-educational, and
      psychotherapeutic interventions have important roles to play for CI recipients.
FAU - Kobosko, Joanna
AU  - Kobosko J
AD  - Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland.
AD  - World Hearing Center, Kajetany Nadarzyn, Poland.
FAU - Jedrzejczak, W Wiktor
AU  - Jedrzejczak WW
AUID- ORCID: 0000-0001-8404-0672
AD  - Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland.
AD  - World Hearing Center, Kajetany Nadarzyn, Poland.
FAU - Gos, Elzbieta
AU  - Gos E
AD  - Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland.
AD  - World Hearing Center, Kajetany Nadarzyn, Poland.
FAU - Geremek-Samsonowicz, Anna
AU  - Geremek-Samsonowicz A
AD  - Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland.
AD  - World Hearing Center, Kajetany Nadarzyn, Poland.
FAU - Ludwikowski, Maciej
AU  - Ludwikowski M
AD  - Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland.
AD  - World Hearing Center, Kajetany Nadarzyn, Poland.
FAU - Skarzynski, Henryk
AU  - Skarzynski H
AD  - Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland.
AD  - World Hearing Center, Kajetany Nadarzyn, Poland.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20180911
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
SB  - IM
MH  - Adult
MH  - Cochlear Implantation
MH  - Deafness/*psychology
MH  - Educational Status
MH  - Employment
MH  - Female
MH  - Humans
MH  - Linear Models
MH  - Male
MH  - Middle Aged
MH  - Patient Satisfaction
MH  - *Self Concept
MH  - Sex Factors
MH  - Socioeconomic Factors
MH  - Young Adult
PMC - PMC6133281
COIS- The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
EDAT- 2018/09/12 06:00
MHDA- 2019/02/27 06:00
CRDT- 2018/09/12 06:00
PHST- 2018/01/05 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2018/08/26 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2018/09/12 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/09/12 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/02/27 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0203680 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-18-00415 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2018 Sep 11;13(9):e0203680. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203680.
      eCollection 2018.