PMID- 29874528
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180614
LR  - 20180912
IS  - 1533-4406 (Electronic)
IS  - 0028-4793 (Linking)
VI  - 378
IP  - 23
DP  - 2018 Jun 7
TI  - A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bezafibrate in Primary Biliary Cholangitis.
PG  - 2171-2181
LID - 10.1056/NEJMoa1714519 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Patients with primary biliary cholangitis who have an inadequate
      response to therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid are at high risk for disease
      progression. Fibrates, which are agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated
      receptors, in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid, have shown potential benefit
      in patients with this condition. METHODS: In this 24-month, double-blind,
      placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 100 patients who had had 
      an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid according to the Paris 2 criteria 
      to receive bezafibrate at a daily dose of 400 mg (50 patients), or placebo (50
      patients), in addition to continued treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. The
      primary outcome was a complete biochemical response, which was defined as normal 
      levels of total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, and albumin, 
      as well as a normal prothrombin index (a derived measure of prothrombin time), at
      24 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 31% of the patients assigned 
      to bezafibrate and in 0% assigned to placebo (difference, 31 percentage points;
      95% confidence interval, 10 to 50; P<0.001). Normal levels of alkaline
      phosphatase were observed in 67% of the patients in the bezafibrate group and in 
      2% in the placebo group. Results regarding changes in pruritus, fatigue, and
      noninvasive measures of liver fibrosis, including liver stiffness and Enhanced
      Liver Fibrosis score, were consistent with the results of the primary outcome.
      Two patients in each group had complications from end-stage liver disease. The
      creatinine level increased 5% from baseline in the bezafibrate group and
      decreased 3% in the placebo group. Myalgia occurred in 20% of the patients in the
      bezafibrate group and in 10% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients
      with primary biliary cholangitis who had had an inadequate response to
      ursodeoxycholic acid alone, treatment with bezafibrate in addition to
      ursodeoxycholic acid resulted in a rate of complete biochemical response that was
      significantly higher than the rate with placebo and ursodeoxycholic acid therapy.
      (Funded by Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique and Arrow Generiques;
      BEZURSO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01654731 .).
FAU - Corpechot, Christophe
AU  - Corpechot C
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Chazouilleres, Olivier
AU  - Chazouilleres O
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Rousseau, Alexandra
AU  - Rousseau A
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Le Gruyer, Antonia
AU  - Le Gruyer A
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Habersetzer, Francois
AU  - Habersetzer F
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Mathurin, Philippe
AU  - Mathurin P
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Goria, Odile
AU  - Goria O
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Potier, Pascal
AU  - Potier P
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Minello, Anne
AU  - Minello A
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Silvain, Christine
AU  - Silvain C
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Abergel, Armand
AU  - Abergel A
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Debette-Gratien, Maryline
AU  - Debette-Gratien M
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Larrey, Dominique
AU  - Larrey D
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Roux, Olivier
AU  - Roux O
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre
AU  - Bronowicki JP
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Boursier, Jerome
AU  - Boursier J
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - de Ledinghen, Victor
AU  - de Ledinghen V
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Heurgue-Berlot, Alexandra
AU  - Heurgue-Berlot A
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Nguyen-Khac, Eric
AU  - Nguyen-Khac E
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Zoulim, Fabien
AU  - Zoulim F
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Ollivier-Hourmand, Isabelle
AU  - Ollivier-Hourmand I
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Zarski, Jean-Pierre
AU  - Zarski JP
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Nkontchou, Gisele
AU  - Nkontchou G
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Lemoinne, Sara
AU  - Lemoinne S
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Humbert, Lydie
AU  - Humbert L
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Rainteau, Dominique
AU  - Rainteau D
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Lefevre, Guillaume
AU  - Lefevre G
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - de Chaisemartin, Luc
AU  - de Chaisemartin L
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Chollet-Martin, Sylvie
AU  - Chollet-Martin S
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Gaouar, Farid
AU  - Gaouar F
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Admane, Farid-Hakeem
AU  - Admane FH
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Simon, Tabassome
AU  - Simon T
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
FAU - Poupon, Raoul
AU  - Poupon R
AD  - From the Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune
      Hepatitis, Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Antoine University
      Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP) (C.C., O.C., S.L., F.G.,
      R.P.), INSERM Unite Mixte de Recherche (UMR) S938 (C.C., O.C., S.L., R.P.) and
      the Biochemistry Laboratory (L.H., D.R.), Saint-Antoine University Hospital,
      APHP, INSERM Unite 1157/UMR 7203, Sorbonne University, the Biochemistry
      Laboratory, Tenon University Hospital, APHP (G.L.), and the Immunology
      Laboratory, INSERM UMR S996, Bichat University Hospital, APHP (L.C., S.C.-M.),
      Paris-Sud University, the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical
      Research Platform of the East of Paris, APHP (A.R., F.-H.A., T.S.), and Sorbonne 
      University (T.S.), Paris, the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Rouen
      University Hospital, Rouen (O.G.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes (A.L.G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Institute of
      Viral and Liver Diseases, INSERM Unite 1110, Laboratory of Excellence HepSYS,
      University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (F.H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Claude Huriez University Hospital, Lille (P.M.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Orleans Hospital, Orleans (P.P.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Dijon Bourgogne University Hospital, Dijon (A.M.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Poitiers, 
      Poitiers (C.S.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Estaing
      University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (A.A.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Department, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges (M.D.-G.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Saint-Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (D.L.), 
      the Hepatology Department, Beaujon University Hospital, Clichy (O.R.), the
      Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Brabois University Hospital, Nancy
      (J.-P.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of
      Angers, Hemodynamics, Interaction, Fibrosis, and Tumor Invasiveness in Hepatic
      and Digestive Organs Laboratory, Unite Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement
      Superieur 3859, Structures Federatives de Recherche 4208, Bretagne Loire
      University, Angers (J.B.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      Haut-Leveque University Hospital, Pessac (V.L.), the Hepatology and
      Gastroenterology Department, Robert Debre University Hospital, Reims (A.H.-B.),
      the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, University Hospital of Amiens,
      Amiens (E.N.-K.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Croix-Rousse
      University Hospital, Lyon (F.Z.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department,
      University Hospital of Caen, Caen (I.O.-H.), the Hepatology and Gastroenterology 
      Department, Michallon University Hospital, Grenoble (J.-P.Z.), and the Hepatology
      and Gastroenterology Department, Jean Verdier University Hospital, Bondy (G.N.) -
      all in France.
LA  - eng
SI  - ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01654731
PT  - Clinical Trial, Phase III
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Multicenter Study
PT  - Randomized Controlled Trial
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PL  - United States
TA  - N Engl J Med
JT  - The New England journal of medicine
JID - 0255562
RN  - 0 (Bile Acids and Salts)
RN  - 0 (Hypolipidemic Agents)
RN  - 0 (Placebos)
RN  - 724L30Y2QR (Ursodeoxycholic Acid)
RN  - Y9449Q51XH (Bezafibrate)
SB  - AIM
SB  - IM
CIN - N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 7;378(23 ):2234-2235. PMID: 29874531
CIN - N Engl J Med. 2018 Sep 06;379(10):984. PMID: 30207645
MH  - Adult
MH  - Bezafibrate/adverse effects/*therapeutic use
MH  - Bile Acids and Salts/blood
MH  - Cholangitis/*drug therapy/etiology
MH  - Double-Blind Method
MH  - Female
MH  - Humans
MH  - Hypolipidemic Agents/adverse effects/*therapeutic use
MH  - Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications/drug therapy
MH  - Male
MH  - Middle Aged
MH  - Placebos/therapeutic use
MH  - Treatment Failure
MH  - Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use
EDAT- 2018/06/07 06:00
MHDA- 2018/06/15 06:00
CRDT- 2018/06/07 06:00
PHST- 2018/06/07 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/06/07 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/06/15 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1056/NEJMoa1714519 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 7;378(23):2171-2181. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1714519.