PMID- 29608588
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180716
LR  - 20181114
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 13
IP  - 4
DP  - 2018
TI  - Spatial clusters of gonorrhoea in England with particular reference to the
      outcome of partner notification: 2012 and 2013.
PG  - e0195178
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0195178 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: This study explored spatial-temporal variation in diagnoses of
      gonorrhoea to identify and quantify endemic areas and clusters in relation to
      patient characteristics and outcomes of partner notification (PN) across England,
      UK. METHODS: Endemic areas and clusters were identified using a two-stage
      analysis with Kulldorff's scan statistics (SaTScan). RESULTS: Of 2,571,838 tests,
      53,547 diagnoses were gonorrhoea positive (positivity = 2.08%). The proportion of
      diagnoses in heterosexual males was 1.5 times that in heterosexual females. Among
      index cases, men who have sex with men (MSM) were 8 times more likely to be
      diagnosed with gonorrhoea than heterosexual males (p<0.0001). After controlling
      for age, gender, ethnicity and deprivation rank, 4 endemic areas were identified 
      including 11,047 diagnoses, 86% of which occurred in London. 33 clusters included
      17,629 diagnoses (34% of total diagnoses in 2012 and 2013) and spanned 21
      locations, some of which were dominated by heterosexually acquired infection,
      whilst others were MSM focused. Of the 53,547 diagnoses, 14.5% (7,775) were the
      result of PN. The proportion of patients who attended services as a result of PN 
      varied from 0% to 61% within different age, gender and sexual orientation
      cohorts. A third of tests resulting from PN were positive for gonorrhoea. 25% of 
      Local Authorities (n = 81, 95% CI: 20.2, 29.5) had a higher than expected
      proportion for female PN diagnoses as compared to 16% for males (n = 52, 95% CI: 
      12.0, 19.9). CONCLUSIONS: The English gonorrhoea epidemic is characterised by
      spatial-temporal variation. PN success varied between endemic areas and clusters.
      Greater emphasis should be placed on the role of PN in the control of gonorrhoea 
      to reduce the risk of onward transmission, re-infection, and complications of
      infection.
FAU - O'Brien, Allen
AU  - O'Brien A
AUID- ORCID: 0000-0003-2646-712X
AD  - Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and
      Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
FAU - Sherrard-Smith, Ellie
AU  - Sherrard-Smith E
AD  - HIV and STI Department, National Infection Service, Public Health England,
      London, United Kingdom.
FAU - Sile, Bersabeh
AU  - Sile B
AD  - HIV and STI Department, National Infection Service, Public Health England,
      London, United Kingdom.
FAU - Watts, Charlotte
AU  - Watts C
AD  - Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and
      Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
FAU - Simms, Ian
AU  - Simms I
AD  - HIV and STI Department, National Infection Service, Public Health England,
      London, United Kingdom.
LA  - eng
PT  - Historical Article
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20180402
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
RN  - 0 (Dental Alloys)
RN  - 83666-97-1 (Cluster admixed alloy)
SB  - IM
MH  - Adolescent
MH  - Adult
MH  - Aged
MH  - Aged, 80 and over
MH  - Child
MH  - Cluster Analysis
MH  - Dental Alloys
MH  - England/epidemiology/ethnology
MH  - Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data
MH  - Female
MH  - Geography, Medical
MH  - Gonorrhea/diagnosis/*epidemiology/history
MH  - HIV Infections
MH  - History, 21st Century
MH  - Humans
MH  - Male
MH  - Middle Aged
MH  - Public Health Surveillance
MH  - Sexual Behavior
MH  - Spatio-Temporal Analysis
MH  - Young Adult
PMC - PMC5880387
EDAT- 2018/04/03 06:00
MHDA- 2018/07/17 06:00
CRDT- 2018/04/03 06:00
PHST- 2017/12/05 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2018/03/16 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2018/04/03 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/04/03 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/07/17 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0195178 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-17-42751 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2018 Apr 2;13(4):e0195178. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195178.
      eCollection 2018.