PMID- 29281731
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180206
LR  - 20181113
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 12
DP  - 2017
TI  - Epidemiology of chlamydial infection and disease in a free-ranging koala
      (Phascolarctos cinereus) population.
PG  - e0190114
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0190114 [doi]
AB  - Chlamydial disease continues to be one of the main factors threatening the
      long-term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Despite this, large
      epidemiological studies of chlamydial infection and disease in wild koala
      populations are lacking. A better understanding of the prevalence, transmission
      and pathogenesis is needed to improve control measures, such as the development
      of vaccines. We investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum infection and
      disease in 160 koalas in a peri-urban wild population in Queensland, Australia
      and found that 31% of koalas were Chlamydia PCR positive and 28% had clinically
      detectable chlamydial disease. Most infections were at the urogenital site (27%; 
      both males and females) with only 14% at the ocular site. Interestingly, we found
      that 27% (4/15) of koalas considered to be sexually immature (9-13 months) were
      already infected with C. pecorum, suggesting that a significant percentage of
      animals are infected directly from their mother. Ocular infection levels were
      less prevalent with increasing age (8% in koalas older than 4 years), whereas the
      prevalence of urogenital tract infections remained high into older age (26% in
      koalas older than 4 years), suggesting that, after mother-to-young transmission, 
      C. pecorum is predominantly a sexually transmitted infection. While 28% of koalas
      in this population had clinically detectable chlamydial disease (primarily
      urogenital tract disease), many PCR positive koalas had no detectable disease and
      importantly, not all diseased animals were PCR positive. We also observed higher 
      chlamydial loads in koalas who were C. pecorum infected without clinical disease 
      than in koalas who were C. pecorum infected with clinical disease. These results 
      shed light on the potential mechanisms of transmission of C. pecorum in koalas
      and also guide future control measures, such as vaccination.
FAU - Nyari, Sharon
AU  - Nyari S
AUID- ORCID: 0000-0001-6295-529X
AD  - Centre for Animal Health Innovation, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and
      Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland,
      Australia.
FAU - Waugh, Courtney A
AU  - Waugh CA
AD  - Centre for Animal Health Innovation, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and
      Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland,
      Australia.
FAU - Dong, Jianbao
AU  - Dong J
AD  - Centre for Animal Health Innovation, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and
      Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland,
      Australia.
FAU - Quigley, Bonnie L
AU  - Quigley BL
AD  - Centre for Animal Health Innovation, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and
      Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland,
      Australia.
FAU - Hanger, Jonathan
AU  - Hanger J
AD  - Endeavour Veterinary Ecology, Toorbul, Queensland, Australia.
FAU - Loader, Joanne
AU  - Loader J
AD  - Endeavour Veterinary Ecology, Toorbul, Queensland, Australia.
FAU - Polkinghorne, Adam
AU  - Polkinghorne A
AD  - Centre for Animal Health Innovation, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and
      Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland,
      Australia.
FAU - Timms, Peter
AU  - Timms P
AD  - Centre for Animal Health Innovation, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and
      Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland,
      Australia.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20171227
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Chlamydia/*isolation & purification
MH  - Chlamydia Infections/*epidemiology
MH  - Female
MH  - Female Urogenital Diseases/epidemiology/microbiology
MH  - Male
MH  - Male Urogenital Diseases/epidemiology/microbiology
MH  - Phascolarctidae/*microbiology
MH  - Polymerase Chain Reaction
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - Queensland/epidemiology
PMC - PMC5744985
EDAT- 2017/12/28 06:00
MHDA- 2018/02/07 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/28 06:00
PHST- 2017/06/12 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/12/10 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/12/28 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/12/28 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/02/07 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0190114 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-17-22377 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Dec 27;12(12):e0190114. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190114.
      eCollection 2017.