PMID- 29140108
DCOM- 20180706
LR  - 20180919
IS  - 1931-8405 (Electronic)
IS  - 0889-2229 (Linking)
VI  - 33
IP  - S1
DP  - 2017 Nov
TI  - Cytomegalovirus and HIV Persistence: Pouring Gas on the Fire.
PG  - S23-S30
LID - 10.1089/aid.2017.0145 [doi]
AB  - The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently
      infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn
      obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune
      system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with
      varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection.
      Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent
      reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies. Human
      cytomegalovirus (CMV), another chronic viral infection, frequently co-occurs with
      HIV and occupies an oversized proportion of memory T cell responses. CMV and HIV 
      have both evolved complex strategies to manipulate our immune system for their
      own advantage. Given the increasingly clear links between CMV replication,
      chronic immune activation, and increased HIV reservoirs, we present a closer
      examination of the interplay between these two chronic coinfections. Here we
      review the effects of CMV on the immune system and show how they may affect
      persistence of the latent HIV reservoir during ART. The studies described herein 
      suggest that hijacking of cytokine and chemokine signaling, manipulation of cell 
      development pathways, and transactivation of HIV expression by CMV might be
      pouring gas on the fire of HIV persistence. Future interventional studies are
      required to formally determine the extent to which CMV is causally associated
      with inflammation and HIV reservoir expansion.
FAU - Christensen-Quick, Aaron
AU  - Christensen-Quick A
AD  - 1 University of California San Diego , Center for AIDS Research, La Jolla,
FAU - Vanpouille, Christophe
AU  - Vanpouille C
AD  - 2 Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human
      Development, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland.
FAU - Lisco, Andrea
AU  - Lisco A
AD  - 3 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of
      Health , Bethesda, Maryland.
FAU - Gianella, Sara
AU  - Gianella S
AD  - 1 University of California San Diego , Center for AIDS Research, La Jolla,
LA  - eng
GR  - P01 AI131385/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - P30 AI036214/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - R21 AI134295/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
GR  - R21 HD094646/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
PL  - United States
TA  - AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
JT  - AIDS research and human retroviruses
JID - 8709376
RN  - 0 (Anti-HIV Agents)
SB  - IM
SB  - X
MH  - Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
MH  - CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology/virology
MH  - Coinfection/pathology/virology
MH  - Cytomegalovirus/growth & development/*immunology
MH  - Cytomegalovirus Infections/*immunology/virology
MH  - HIV Infections/*immunology/virology
MH  - HIV-1/growth & development/*immunology
MH  - Humans
MH  - Immune Evasion/*immunology
MH  - Virus Latency/*immunology
MH  - Virus Replication/physiology
PMC - PMC5684659
OT  - inflammation
OT  - persistence
OT  - reservoir
EDAT- 2017/11/16 06:00
MHDA- 2018/07/07 06:00
CRDT- 2017/11/16 06:00
PMCR- 2018/11/01 00:00
PHST- 2018/11/01 00:00 [pmc-release]
PHST- 2017/11/16 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/11/16 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/07/07 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1089/aid.2017.0145 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Nov;33(S1):S23-S30. doi: 10.1089/aid.2017.0145.