PMID- 28990963
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20190311
LR  - 20190311
IS  - 1538-4667 (Electronic)
IS  - 0196-0202 (Linking)
VI  - 39
IP  - 3
DP  - 2018 May/Jun
TI  - Terrible Twos or Early Signs of Psychopathology? Developmental Patterns in Early 
      Identified Preschoolers With Cochlear Implants Compared With Hearing Controls.
PG  - 495-502
LID - 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000500 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) have dramatically improved the lives of
      children who are deaf or hard of hearing; however, little is known about its
      implications for preventing the development of psychiatric symptoms in this
      at-risk population. This is the first longitudinal study to examine the early
      manifestation of emotional and behavioral disorders and associated risk and
      protective factors in early identified preschoolers with CIs compared with
      hearing peers. DESIGN: Participants were 74 children with CIs and 190 hearing
      controls between ages 1 and 5 years (mean age, 3.8 years). Hearing loss was
      detected using the Newborn Hearing Screening in The Netherlands and Flanders.
      Parents completed the Early Childhood Inventory-4, a well-validated measure, to
      evaluate the symptoms of DSM-IV-defined psychiatric disorders, during three
      consecutive years. Language scores were derived from each child's medical notes. 
      RESULTS: Children with CIs and hearing controls evidenced comparable levels of
      disruptive behavior and anxiety/depression (which increased with age in both
      groups). Greater proficiency in language skills was associated with lower levels 
      of psychopathology. Early CI and longer duration of CI use resulted in better
      language development. In turn, higher early language skills served as a
      protective factor against the development of disruptive behavior symptoms.
      CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study uniquely shows that improvement in language 
      skills mitigates the development of early signs of psychopathology. Early
      identification of hearing loss and CIs help children improve their language
      skills.
FAU - Netten, Anouk P
AU  - Netten AP
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Leiden University
      Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
FAU - Rieffe, Carolien
AU  - Rieffe C
AD  - Department of Developmental Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The
      Netherlands.
AD  - Dutch Foundation for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Child, Amsterdam, The
      Netherlands.
FAU - Ketelaar, Lizet
AU  - Ketelaar L
AD  - Dutch Foundation for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Child, Amsterdam, The
      Netherlands.
FAU - Soede, Wim
AU  - Soede W
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Leiden University
      Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
FAU - Gadow, Kenneth D
AU  - Gadow KD
AD  - Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.
FAU - Frijns, Johan H M
AU  - Frijns JHM
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Leiden University
      Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
AD  - Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, The Netherlands.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PL  - United States
TA  - Ear Hear
JT  - Ear and hearing
JID - 8005585
SB  - IM
MH  - Case-Control Studies
MH  - *Child Behavior
MH  - *Child Language
MH  - Child, Preschool
MH  - Cochlear Implants
MH  - Deafness/*psychology/surgery
MH  - Female
MH  - Humans
MH  - Infant
MH  - Infant Behavior
MH  - Longitudinal Studies
MH  - Male
MH  - Persons With Hearing Impairments/*psychology
MH  - *Psychopathology
MH  - Surveys and Questionnaires
EDAT- 2017/10/11 06:00
MHDA- 2019/03/12 06:00
CRDT- 2017/10/10 06:00
PHST- 2017/10/11 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/03/12 06:00 [medline]
PHST- 2017/10/10 06:00 [entrez]
AID - 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000500 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Ear Hear. 2018 May/Jun;39(3):495-502. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000500.