PMID- 28837426
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20190304
LR  - 20190304
IS  - 1538-4667 (Electronic)
IS  - 0196-0202 (Linking)
VI  - 39
IP  - 2
DP  - 2018 Mar/Apr
TI  - Factorial Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Test of Preschool Early
      Literacy-Phonological Awareness Test Among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and 
      Hearing Children.
PG  - 278-292
LID - 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000485 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that early phonological awareness in deaf 
      and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing is significantly
      related to their reading acquisition, and the assessment of phonological
      awareness can play a critical role in preventing reading difficulties. Validation
      of the scores obtained from standardized assessments when used with DHH students 
      is crucial to support the assessments' intended interpretations and implications 
      of test scores. Using archival data sets, the aim of this study was twofold: (a) 
      to establish the factorial validity of the item scores on the Test of Preschool
      Early Literacy-Phonological Awareness (TOPEL-PA) for DHH children with functional
      hearing and hearing children and (b) to test measurement invariance across these 
      groups. Our archival data sets included assessments of DHH children, hearing
      children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, and hearing children
      from a range of SES backgrounds. We hypothesized that a second-order unifying
      ability, Phonological Awareness, along with four first-order subtest factors
      would explain inter-item associations among the 27 items on the TOPEL-PA. We
      further hypothesized that patterns of associations among the item scores would be
      similar across groups and that the individual items would function similarly
      across groups. DESIGN: Seven hundred and thirty-three children from three samples
      participated in the study; 171 were DHH children (Mage = 58.7 months old, SDage =
      12.5 months old), 195 were low-SES hearing children (Mage = 55.5 months old,
      SDage = 3.5 months old), and 367 were diverse-SES hearing children (Mage = 53.4
      months old, SDage = 8.9 months old). All DHH children were able to identify the
      referent of monosyllabic spoken words on the Early Speech Perception Test.
      RESULTS: Test of confirmatory item factor analyses of the hypothesized
      second-order factor structure revealed that a second-order unifying ability along
      with four first-order subtest factors well explained associations among the item 
      scores for all groups. This aligned with the scoring structure of the TOPEL-PA,
      providing strong evidence for factorial validity of the item scores for DHH
      children as well as for hearing children groups. The measurement invariance test 
      results provided evidence that the vast majority of TOPEL-PA items functioned
      similarly for hearing children and DHH children with speech perception abilities,
      suggesting that the utility of the assessment scores obtained from DHH children
      is consistent with the scores obtained from hearing children. CONCLUSION: Results
      of our study suggest that researchers and practitioners can use the TOPEL-PA to
      assess DHH children with functional hearing. It also suggests that the two skills
      measured on the TOPEL-PA (blending and elision) are qualitatively similar for DHH
      and hearing children, but the latent mean score obtained from the DHH children
      significantly differed from those of the hearing groups, suggesting a
      quantitative difference.
FAU - Webb, Mi-Young Lee
AU  - Webb ML
AD  - Department of Educational Psychology, Special Education, and Communication
      Disorders, College of Education and Human Development, Georgia State University, 
      Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Patton-Terry, Nicole
AU  - Patton-Terry N
AD  - Department of Educational Psychology, Special Education, and Communication
      Disorders, College of Education and Human Development, Georgia State University, 
      Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Bingham, Gary E
AU  - Bingham GE
AD  - Department of Educational Psychology, Special Education, and Communication
      Disorders, College of Education and Human Development, Georgia State University, 
      Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Puranik, Cynthia S
AU  - Puranik CS
AD  - Department of Educational Psychology, Special Education, and Communication
      Disorders, College of Education and Human Development, Georgia State University, 
      Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Lederberg, Amy R
AU  - Lederberg AR
AD  - Department of Educational Psychology, Special Education, and Communication
      Disorders, College of Education and Human Development, Georgia State University, 
      Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PT  - Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
PT  - Validation Studies
PL  - United States
TA  - Ear Hear
JT  - Ear and hearing
JID - 8005585
SB  - IM
MH  - *Child Language
MH  - Child, Preschool
MH  - *Deafness
MH  - Female
MH  - *Hearing Disorders
MH  - Humans
MH  - *Literacy
MH  - Male
MH  - *Persons With Hearing Impairments
MH  - *Phonetics
MH  - Psychometrics
MH  - Reading
MH  - Social Class
EDAT- 2017/08/25 06:00
MHDA- 2019/03/05 06:00
CRDT- 2017/08/25 06:00
PHST- 2017/08/25 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2019/03/05 06:00 [medline]
PHST- 2017/08/25 06:00 [entrez]
AID - 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000485 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Ear Hear. 2018 Mar/Apr;39(2):278-292. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000485.