PMID- 28792529
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20171003
LR  - 20181113
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 8
DP  - 2017
TI  - Discrepancy between self-assessed hearing status and measured audiometric
      evaluation.
PG  - e0182718
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0182718 [doi]
AB  - OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between
      self-reported hearing status and hearing impairment assessed using conventional
      audiometry. The associated factors were examined when a concordance between
      self-reported hearing and audiometric measures was lacking. METHODS: In total,
      19,642 individuals >/=20 years of age who participated in the Korea National
      Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2009 through 2012 were
      enrolled. Pure-tone hearing threshold audiometry (PTA) was measured and
      classified into three levels: <25 dB (normal hearing); >/=25 dB <40 dB (mild
      hearing impairment); and >/=40 dB (moderate-to-severe hearing impairment). The
      self-reported hearing loss was categorized into 3 categories. The participants
      were categorized into three groups: the concordance (matched between
      self-reported hearing loss and audiometric PTA), overestimation (higher
      self-reported hearing loss compared to audiometric PTA), and underestimation
      groups (lower self-reported hearing loss compared to audiometric PTA). The
      associations of age, sex, education level, stress level, anxiety/depression,
      tympanic membrane (TM) status, hearing aid use, and tinnitus with the discrepancy
      between the hearing self-reported hearing loss and audiometric pure tone
      threshold results were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analysis
      with complex sampling. RESULTS: Overall, 80.1%, 7.1%, and 12.8% of the
      participants were assigned to the concordance, overestimation, and
      underestimation groups, respectively. Older age (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] =
      1.28 [95% confidence interval = 1.19-1.37] and 2.80 [2.62-2.99] for the
      overestimation and the underestimation groups, respectively), abnormal TM (2.17
      [1.46-3.23] and 1.59 [1.17-2.15]), and tinnitus (2.44 [2.10-2.83] and 1.61
      [1.38-1.87]) were positively correlated with both the overestimation and
      underestimation groups. Compared with specialized workers, service workers,
      manual workers, and the unemployed were more likely to be in the overestimation
      group (1.48 [1.11-1.98], 1.39 [1.04-1.86], and 1.50 [1.18-1.90], respectively),
      and service workers were more likely to be in the underestimation group (AOR =
      1.42 [1.01-1.99]). Higher education level (0.77 [0.59-1.01] and 0.43 [0.33-0.57])
      and hearing aid use (0.36 [0.17-0.77] and 0.23 [0.13-0.43]) were negatively
      associated with being in the underestimation group (0.43 [0.37-0.50]). Compared
      with males, females were less likely to be assigned to the underestimation group 
      (0.43 [0.37-0.50]). Stress (1.98 [1.32-2.98]) and anxiety/depression (1.30
      [1.06-1.59]) were associated with overestimation group. CONCLUSION: Older age,
      lower education level, occupation, abnormal TM, non-hearing aid use, and tinnitus
      were related to both overestimation and underestimation groups. Male gender was
      related to underestimation, and stress and anxiety/depression were correlated
      with overestimation group. An understanding of these factors associated with the 
      self-reported hearing loss will be instrumental to identifying and managing
      hearing-impaired individuals.
FAU - Kim, So Young
AU  - Kim SY
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical
      Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.
FAU - Kim, Hyung-Jong
AU  - Kim HJ
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Hallym University Sacred
      Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea.
FAU - Kim, Min-Su
AU  - Kim MS
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Korea University Ansan
      Hospital, Ansan, Korea.
FAU - Park, Bumjung
AU  - Park B
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Hallym University Sacred
      Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea.
FAU - Kim, Jin-Hwan
AU  - Kim JH
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Hallym University College 
      of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
FAU - Choi, Hyo Geun
AU  - Choi HG
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1655-9549
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Hallym University Sacred
      Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea.
LA  - eng
PT  - Comparative Study
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170808
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
SB  - IM
MH  - Adult
MH  - Age Factors
MH  - Aged
MH  - Aged, 80 and over
MH  - Anxiety/complications
MH  - *Audiometry, Pure-Tone
MH  - Auditory Threshold
MH  - Depression/complications
MH  - *Diagnostic Self Evaluation
MH  - Educational Status
MH  - Employment
MH  - Female
MH  - Hearing Loss/complications/diagnosis/psychology
MH  - Humans
MH  - Male
MH  - Middle Aged
MH  - Republic of Korea
MH  - Self Report
MH  - Sex Factors
MH  - Stress, Psychological
MH  - Tinnitus/complications/psychology
MH  - Young Adult
PMC - PMC5549722
EDAT- 2017/08/10 06:00
MHDA- 2017/10/04 06:00
CRDT- 2017/08/10 06:00
PHST- 2016/07/06 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/07/24 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/08/10 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/08/10 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/10/04 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0182718 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-26950 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Aug 8;12(8):e0182718. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182718.
      eCollection 2017.