PMID- 28549017
DCOM- 20170901
LR  - 20170901
IS  - 1531-7021 (Electronic)
IS  - 1040-8738 (Linking)
VI  - 28
IP  - 5
DP  - 2017 Sep
TI  - Diagnosis of enlarged extraocular muscles: when and how to biopsy.
PG  - 514-521
LID - 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000395 [doi]
AB  - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current knowledge regarding diagnosis of nonthyroid 
      orbital disorders with extraocular muscle enlargement. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent
      publications have focused on immunoglobulin G4-related disease as a possible
      cause of enlarged extraocular muscles, on patterns of strabismus that raise a
      clinical suspicion of intramuscular lymphoma, and on surgical techniques to
      access the muscles for tissue biopsy. SUMMARY: With enlarged extraocular muscles,
      features to distinguish between competing diagnostic possibilities are based on
      imaging in the context of history and clinical signs. Infraorbital nerve
      enlargement in the presence of muscle enlargement strongly favours a diagnosis of
      immunoglobulin G4-related disease and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. As our
      understanding of minimally invasive orbital surgery evolves, the diagnostic focus
      is shifting toward earlier identification through muscle biopsy.
FAU - Mombaerts, Ilse
AU  - Mombaerts I
AD  - aDepartment of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
      bMoorfields Eye Hospital cInstitute of Ophthalmology, London, UK.
FAU - Rose, Geoffrey E
AU  - Rose GE
FAU - Verity, David H
AU  - Verity DH
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
PL  - United States
TA  - Curr Opin Ophthalmol
JT  - Current opinion in ophthalmology
JID - 9011108
SB  - IM
MH  - Biopsy/*methods
MH  - Humans
MH  - Hypertrophy
MH  - Oculomotor Muscles/*pathology
MH  - Strabismus/*diagnosis
EDAT- 2017/05/27 06:00
MHDA- 2017/09/02 06:00
CRDT- 2017/05/27 06:00
PHST- 2017/05/27 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/09/02 06:00 [medline]
PHST- 2017/05/27 06:00 [entrez]
AID - 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000395 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep;28(5):514-521. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000395.